AbstractThe Medicare program of health care for the aged now costs more than $5,000 per enrollee, a national cost of more than $200 billion a year. The official projections that these costs will rise rapidly from 2.5% of GDP now to 5.5% of GDP in 2030 and 7% of GDP in 2070 assume that structural changes in health care will prevent the even more rapid growth of spending that would occur if past trends continue. These GDP shares are equivalent to increasing the payroll tax rates that rise from 5% of total wages now to 14% of total wages by 2070. Alternatively, if the increased Medicare spending is financed by an across-the-board increase in income tax rates, all tax rates would rise by 46 percent (e.g., from 28% to 41%). If Medicare costs continue to be tax financed, the sharp increase in Medicare costs would cause a substantial increase in the deadweight loss of the tax system. Even with quite favorable assumptions, the increased deadweight loss is likely to be almost as large as the direct increase in the health care costs themselves. This paper analyzes an alternative life cycle approach to paying for the cost of health care of the aged: a system of investment-based individual Retiree Health Accounts (RHAs) to which the government deposits funds during individuals' working years. At retirement the individual could use the accumulated fund to purchase a fee-for-service plan like the current Medicare package, to pay for membership in an HMO, or to establish a medical savings account with a high deductible insurance policy. Using data from the Social Security administration, I estimate that annual RHA deposits equal to about 1.4% of total payroll would eventually be enough to pay for the full increase in the cost of Medicare, obviating a nine percentage point payroll tax increase.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by American Economic Association in its journal American Economic Review.
Volume (Year): 89 (1999)
Issue (Month): 2 (May)
Other versions of this item:
- H51 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Health
- I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
You can help add them by filling out this form.
CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
- Jeffrey R. Brown & Olivia S. Mitchell & James M. Poterba, 1999.
"The Role of Real Annuities and Indexed Bonds in an Individual Accounts Retirement Program,"
NBER Working Papers
7005, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jeffrey R. Brown & Olivia S. Mitchell & James M. Poterba, 2001. "The Role of Real Annuities and Indexed Bonds in an Individual Accounts Retirement Program," NBER Chapters, in: Risk Aspects of Investment-Based Social Security Reform, pages 321-370 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jeffrey R. Brown & Olivia S. Mitchell & James M. Poterba, . "The Role of Real Annuities and Indexed Bonds In An Individual Accounts Retirement Program," Pension Research Council Working Papers 99-2, Wharton School Pension Research Council, University of Pennsylvania.
- Jeffrey R. Brown & Olivia S. Mitchell & James M. Poterba, 1999. "The Role of Real Annuities and Indexed Bonds in an Individual Accounts Retirement Program," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 99-18, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Groezen, B.J.A.M. van & Meijdam, A.C. & Verbon, H.A.A., 2002. "Social Security Reform and Population Ageing in a Two-Sector Growth Model," Discussion Paper 2002-25, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Marcelin Joanis & David Boisclair & Claude Montmarquette, 2004. "La santé au Québec : des options pour financer la croissance," CIRANO Project Reports 2004rp-04, CIRANO.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jane Voros) or (Michael P. Albert).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.