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Die Kultur der Prävention: Ein Ansatz zur Zivilisierung internationaler Politik?

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  • Chojnacki, Sven
  • Eberwein, Wolf-Dieter
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    Abstract

    Auch im 21. Jahrhundert sieht sich die internationale Politik mit einer altbekannten, doppelten Fragestellung konfrontiert: Warum und wie kommt es einerseits dazu, daß Staaten oder gesellschaftliche Gruppen immer wieder zur Gewalt greifen? Wie lassen sich andererseits der Ausbruch und die Eskalation gewaltsamer Konflikte verhindern und, sollte dies nicht möglich sein, zumindest eindämmen? Als Zauberformel wird in der Wissenschaft und Praxis der Begriff der Prävention gehandelt, der seit dem Ende des Ost-West-Konflikts eine atemberaubende Karriere gemacht hat. Um die vielfach postulierte „Kultur der Prävention“ angemessen zu erfassen, werden drei miteinander verknüpfte Aspekte problematisiert, die zugleich Erklärungselemente des Wandels im internationalen System bereithalten: 1. die Problemstruktur des internationalen Systems, 2. die organisatorische und politikfeldspezifische Struktur der internationalen Beziehungen (transnationale und internationale Akteure in den Politikfeldern Sicherheit, Entwicklung und humanitäre Hilfe) sowie 3. die normative Struktur internationaler Ordnung (Souveränität, Nichteinmischungsnorm). Vor diesem Hintergrund kann gezeigt werden, daß es zwar durchaus Prozesse der Zivilisierung der internationalen Politik gibt. Doch wird eben auch deutlich, daß kollektive Gewaltanwendung, insbesondere ihr Wandel, nach wie vor eine fundamentale Herausforderung sowohl für praktische Präventionspolitik als auch für die Theorie der Internationalen Beziehungen ist. -- Two well known questions re-emerge at the beginning of the new millenium for the study of international politics. First, why is organized violence a permanent feature of the international system and what are the underlying conditions for internal and international armed conflict? Second, how is it possible to prevent the outbreak of violence or at least limit the vertical and horizontal escalation of war? As a kind of magic formula, both in the scientific community and in practice, spooks the term of prevention, which made an impressive career since the end of the cold war. In order to understand the often postulated “culture of prevention” accurately, we suggest a concept by combining three inter-linked aspects: 1. the causes and issues of organized violence in the international system, 2. the organizational and political structure of international relations (transnational and international actors in the areas of security, development and humanitarian aid), and 3. the normative structure of international order (sovereignty, norm of non-intervention). Given these dimensions of continuity and change in the international system, there are some reasons supporting the argument that there are processes of civilization in the sphere of international politics. On the other hand, it is also striking that organized violence, in particular new patterns of conflict in weak or failed states, still represents a fundamental challenge for both the politics of prevention and international relations theory.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Group International Politics with number P 00-301.

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    Date of creation: 2000
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbipo:p00301

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    1. Timur Kuran, 1989. "Sparks and prairie fires: A theory of unanticipated political revolution," Public Choice, Springer, Springer, vol. 61(1), pages 41-74, April.
    2. Finnemore, Martha & Sikkink, Kathryn, 1998. "International Norm Dynamics and Political Change," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, vol. 52(04), pages 887-917, September.
    3. Eberwein, Wolf-Dieter, 1997. "Die Politik humanitärer Hilfe: Im Spannungsfeld von Macht und Moral," Discussion Papers, Research Group International Politics P 97-301, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
    4. Peter Brecke, 1998. "Finding Harbingers of Violent Conflict: Using Pattern Recognition to Anticipate Conflicts," Conflict Management and Peace Science, Peace Science Society (International), Peace Science Society (International), vol. 16(1), pages 31-56, February.
    5. Diehl, Paul F. & Reifschneider, Jennifer & Hensel, Paul R., 1996. "United Nations intervention and recurring conflict," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge University Press, vol. 50(04), pages 683-700, September.
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