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Modellregionen Elektromobilität: Umweltbegleitforschung Elektromobilität

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  • Schallaböck, Karl Otto
  • Carpantier, Rike
  • Fischedick, Manfred
  • Ritthoff, Michael
  • Wilke, Georg
  • Bauhaus, Wencke
  • Schröder, Sebastian
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    Abstract

    Im Zentrum dieser Untersuchung steht die Aufbereitung der Erfahrungen mit den Elektrofahrzeugen in Einzelprojekten der Modellregionen Phase I hinsichtlich der energiebezogenen Parameter und der nach Fahrzeugsegmenten differenzierte Vergleich mit herkömmlichen Fahrzeugen. In der Literatur finden sich für die Klimabilanz von Elektrofahrzeugen unterschiedliche Bewertungsmethoden, deren Ergebnisse kurzfristig stark streuen und sich erst mittel- bis längerfristig perspektivisch annähern. In der vorliegenden Untersuchung werden drei Varianten zur Bilanzierung der klimarelevanten Emissionen gerechnet: a) Werden Elektrofahrzeuge mit Strom aus erneuerbaren Energien betrieben, ist ihre Klimabilanz deutlich besser als diejenige fossil betriebener Pkw. Wann, inwieweit und unter welchen Voraussetzungen (Herkunftsnachweis) eine direkte Zuordnung des Fahrstroms zu einer Stromerzeugung aus erneuerbaren Energien möglich ist, ist heute allerdings umstritten. b) Unter pragmatischen Gesichtspunkten bietet die Strommixmethode eine gute Orientierung für die klimabezogene Bewertung von Elektrofahrzeugen. Aufgrund der auf der Zeitachse planungsgemäß zunehmenden Anteile erneuerbarer Energien im Strommix führt dies für die Zeiten, in denen eine signifikante Durchdringung mit Elektrofahrzeugen zu erwarten ist, zu einer gegenüber heute deutlichen Verbesserung der spezifischen CO2-Emissionen und respektive Vorteilen gegenüber mit fossilen Kraftstoffen betriebenen Fahrzeugen. c) Legt man dem Kraftwerkseinsatz Merit Order als Regel des ökonomischen Betriebs zugrunde und betrachtet den Stromverbrauch von Elektrofahrzeugen als zusätzlichen Verbrauch gegenüber einem Zustand ohne Elektrofahrzeuge, stellt sich die Klimabilanz nicht so günstig dar. -- This study focuses on the analysis of experiences with electric vehicles within several single projects of the model regions programme, part 1. Main issues are terms of energy-related parameters and the comparison with conventional vehicles (differentiated according to vehicles segments). There are various methods of estimating the carbon footprint of electric vehicles in literature. In short-time considerations their results scatter, but perspectively at middle- and long-time considerations they converge. The present study respects three variations of calculating the climate-relevant emissions: a) If electric vehicles are operated from renewable energy sources, their carbon footprint is significant better than fossil fuel cars. When, how and on what conditions (proof of origin) a direct correlation of the driving-energy to a power generation from renewable energies is possible, is currently in discussion. b) Under pragmatic aspects the energy-mix-method offers a good guide to a climate-related assessment of electric vehicles. Due to the planned growth of the ratio of renewable energies in the electricity mix according to the time-axis, this leads, in times where a significant penetration supply of electric vehicles is expected, to a serious improvement of specific CO2-emissions compared to today. So electric vehicles might have benefits in contrast to vehicles with internal combustion engines. c) If one takes the merit order rule as a basis for the economic power plant operation and considers the power consumption of electric vehicles as an additional consumption compared to a state without electric vehicles, the carbon footprint is not that convenient anymore.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy in its series Wuppertal Reports with number 6.

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    Date of creation: 2012
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wuprep:6

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    Web page: http://www.wupperinst.org/en/home/index.html

    Related research

    Keywords: Elektromobilität; Klimabilanz; Elektro-Pkw; Strommix; CO2-Emissionen; Klimalasten; Energieverbrauch; LCA; Vergleichsfahrzeuge; electric mobility; carbon footprint; electric vehicles; electric passenger cars; electricity mix; CO2-emissions; climate loads; energy consumption; LCA; reference vehicles;

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