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Das "Bruttonationalglück" als Leitlinie der Politik in Bhutan – eine ordnungspolitische Analyse


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  • Pfaff, Tobias
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    In den späten 1970er Jahren erklärte der König des südasiatischen Kleinstaates Bhutan, dass für sein Land das Bruttonationalglück wichtiger sei als das Bruttoinlandsprodukt. Definitorisch kann das Bruttonationalglück als multidimensional und nachhaltig ausgerichtete Ordnungsstruktur Bhutans verstanden werden, die eine Ausgewogenheit von Wirtschaftswachstum und anderen Entwicklungszielen anstrebt, den Erhalt der nationalen Identität und Umwelt sicherstellen soll und auf buddhistischen Prinzipien und Werten basiert. Dieser Beitrag analysiert das Bruttonationalglück aus ordnungspolitischer Perspektive. Die Rekonstruktion des existierenden marktwirtschaftlichen Ordnungsrahmens zeigt, dass auch in Bhutan eine Interdependenz der Ordnungen im Eucken'schen Sinne gilt. Die vereinende Klammer der konstituierenden und regulierenden Faktoren ist eine von buddhistischen Prinzipien geprägte ethische Ausgangsnorm. Die Analyse zeigt gewisse Parallelen des Bruttonationalglücks zur Sozialen Marktwirtschaft. Unterschiede werden anhand von ordnungswidrigen Faktoren verdeutlicht. -- The king of the small South Asian state of Bhutan declared in the late 1970's that for his country Gross National Happiness is more important than Gross National Product. As a definition, Gross National Happiness can be understood as a multidimensional and sustainability oriented structure of social and economic order in Bhutan. Being based on Buddhist principles and values it aims for an equilibrium of economic growth and other goals of development as well as for the preservation of national identity and the environment. This article analyses Gross National Happiness from an ordo-liberal perspective. The reconstruction of the existing frame of economic order shows that the interdependence of orders in the tradition of Euck-en also prevails in Bhutan. The unifying element of the constituent and regulating factors is a basic ethical norm shaped by Buddhist principles. The analysis shows certain parallels of Gross National Happiness and the Social Market Economy. Differences become apparent through factors contrarious to the social and economic order.

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    Paper provided by University of Münster, Center for Interdisciplinary Economics (CIW) in its series CIW Discussion Papers with number 9/2011.

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    Date of creation: 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:ciwdps:92011

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