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Annuity markets in comparative perspective : do consumers get their money's wotrth?

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  • James, Estelle
  • Vittas, Dimitri
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    Abstract

    Pension reforms normally focus on the accumulation phase, plus term insurance that provides bnefits for the disabled and for dependent survivors, all of which are immediate concerns. Decumulation of the capital in workers'retirement savings accounts appears to be far in the future. But in the second generation of reforms, countries have begun paying attention to eventual decumulation--either through gradual withdrawals or through annuitization, which provides longevity insurance. At this point, it becomes important to learn whether annuity markets exist and how they operate. The authors summarize preliminary results of a continuing research project that analyzes annuity markets in Australia, Canada, Chile, Israel, Singapore, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. They focus on understanding whether annuity markets can be relied upon to provide reliable retirement income at reasonable prices. One way to approach this question is to explore whether the expected payouts and the"money's-worth ratio"differ across countries, and if so, why, and what light can be thrown on the existence and amount of adverse selection. Annuity markets are poorly designed for various reasons: worker myopia, precautionary and bequest saving (not erved by most annuity products), distrust of insurance companies (and unwillingness to turn sizeable savings over to them), adverse selection, and the crowding-out effect of social security (Which automatically annuitizes the largest share of people's retirement wealth). Preliminary findings suggest that the cost of annuities is lower than might be expected. When the risk-free discount rate is used, the money's-worth ratios of nominal annuities based on annuitant mortality tables exceed 90 percent--neither the industry"take"nor the effects of adverse selection appear to be as large as anticipated. But real annuities (in Chile, Israel, and the United Kingdom) have money's-worth ratios 7 to 9 percent lower than those of nominal annuities. And when the"riskier"corporate bond rate is used for discounting purposes, there is a further 7 percent reduction. The main policy issues include public versus private provision, the role of insurance companies in term and risk intermediation, the level of compulsory annuitization, and the need for robust regulation of annuity providers.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 2493.

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    Date of creation: 30 Nov 2000
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    Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2493

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    Related research

    Keywords: Insurance&Risk Mitigation; Pensions&Retirement Systems; Non Bank Financial Institutions; Environmental Economics&Policies; Health Economics&Finance;

    References

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    1. Vittas, Dimitri & Skully, Michael, 1991. "Overview of contractual savings institutions," Policy Research Working Paper Series 605, The World Bank.
    2. Jeffrey R. Brown, 2000. "Differential Mortality and the Value of Individual Account Retirement Annuities," NBER Working Papers 7560, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Jeffrey R. Brown & Olivia S. Mitchell & James M. Poterba, 1999. "The Role of Real Annuities and Indexed Bonds in an Individual Accounts Retirement Program," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 99-18, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    4. Benjamin M. Friedman & Mark Warshawsky, 1985. "The Cost of Annuities: Implications for Saving Behavior and Bequests," NBER Working Papers 1682, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. James M. Poterba & Mark Warshawsky, 2000. "The Costs of Annuitizing Retirement Payouts from Individual Accounts," NBER Chapters, in: Administrative Aspects of Investment-Based Social Security Reform, pages 173-206 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Olivia S. Mitchell, 1999. "New Evidence on the Money's Worth of Individual Annuities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(5), pages 1299-1318, December.
    7. Salvador Valdés & Gonzalo Edwards, . "Jubilación en los Sistemas Pensionales Privados," Documentos de Trabajo 182, Instituto de Economia. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile..
    8. David Blake, 1999. "Annuity Markets: Problems and Solutions," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 24(3), pages 358-375, July.
    9. Friedman, Benjamin M & Warshawsky, Mark J, 1990. "The Cost of Annuities: Implications for Saving Behavior and Bequests," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 105(1), pages 135-54, February.
    10. Amy Finkelstein & James Poterba, 1999. "Selection Effects in the Market for Individual Annuities: New Evidence from the United Kingdom," NBER Working Papers 7168, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Valdes-Prieto, Salvador, 1998. "Risks in pensions and annuities : efficient designs," Social Protection Discussion Papers 20847, The World Bank.
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