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From market games to real-world markets

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  • Paul Jefferies
  • Michael Hart
  • Neil Johnson
  • P.M. Hui
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    Abstract

    This paper uses the development of multi-agent market models to present a unified approach to the joint questions of how financial market movements may be simulated, predicted, and hedged against. We first present the results of agent-based market simulations in which traders equipped with simple buy/sell strategies and limited information compete in speculatory trading. We examine the efect of diferent market clearing mechanisms and show that implementation of a simple Walrasian auction leads to unstable market dynamics. We then show that a more realistic out-of-equilibrium clearing process leads to dynamics that closely resemble real financial movements, with fat-tailed price increments, clustered volatility and high volume autocorrelation. We then show that replacing the `synthetic' price history used by these simulations with data taken from real financial time-series leads to the remarkable result that the agents can collectively learn to identify moments in the market where profit is attainable. Hence on real financial data, the system as a whole can perform better than random. We then employ the risk-control formalism of Bouchaud and Sornette in conjunction with agent based models to show that in general risk cannot be eliminated from trading with these models. We also show that, in the presence of transaction costs, the risk of option writing is greatly increased. This risk, and the costs, can however be reduced through the use of a delta-hedging strategy with modified, time-dependent volatility structure.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Oxford Financial Research Centre in its series OFRC Working Papers Series with number 2001mf02.

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    Date of creation: 2001
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    Handle: RePEc:sbs:wpsefe:2001mf02

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    Web page: http://www.finance.ox.ac.uk
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    Cited by:
    1. Matteo Ortisi & Valerio Zuccolo, 2012. "From Minority Game to Black & Scholes pricing," Papers 1205.2521, arXiv.org, revised May 2013.
    2. Liu, Xinghua & Gregor, Shirley & Yang, Jianmei, 2008. "The effects of behavioral and structural assumptions in artificial stock market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(11), pages 2535-2546.
    3. Wei, J.R. & Huang, J.P. & Hui, P.M., 2013. "An agent-based model of stock markets incorporating momentum investors," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(12), pages 2728-2735.
    4. Gu, Gao-Feng & Chen, Wei & Zhou, Wei-Xing, 2008. "Empirical regularities of order placement in the Chinese stock market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(13), pages 3173-3182.
    5. Chen, Fang & Gou, Chengling & Guo, Xiaoqian & Gao, Jieping, 2008. "Prediction of stock markets by the evolutionary mix-game model," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(14), pages 3594-3604.
    6. Damien Challet & Tobias Galla, 2004. "Price return auto-correlation and predictability in agent-based models of financial markets," Papers cond-mat/0404264, arXiv.org, revised Dec 2004.
    7. Zapart, Christopher A., 2009. "On entropy, financial markets and minority games," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(7), pages 1157-1172.
    8. Ren, F. & Zhang, Y.C., 2008. "Trading model with pair pattern strategies," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(22), pages 5523-5534.
    9. Wawrzyniak, Karol & Wiƛlicki, Wojciech, 2012. "Mesoscopic approach to minority games in herd regime," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 391(5), pages 2056-2082.

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