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Le programme de mise à niveau de l’industrie : un moyen efficace de la politique industrielle tunisienne ? (The upgrading program of industry : an efficient means of the tunnisian industrial policy)

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  • Lamia YACOUB

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    (labrii, ULCO)

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    Abstract

    Tandis que certains voient dans le processus de la mondialisation une récusation de la politique industrielle active, d’autres considèrent que c’est ce processus même qui suscite son renouveau. L’étude de l’expérience tunisienne conforte cette dernière idée, en ce sens que l’adoption récente du programme de mise à niveau de l’industrie, nuance la neutralité de la politique industrielle prônée dans le cadre du Plan d’Ajustement Structurel et officialisée en 1993. Ce programme dénote d’un certain regain d’intérêt pour une politique industrielle ciblée, en réponse aux enjeux de la mondialisation et de l’accord de libre-échange avec l’Union Européenne. L’objet de cet article est de proposer une évaluation de l’efficacité du programme de mise à niveau, en tant que principal moyen de la politique industrielle tunisienne actuelle. Notre étude, basée sur l’analyse du contenu du programme et le traitement des données d’une enquête auprès d’une centaine d’entreprises, montre une efficacité globale mitigée du programme de mise à niveau, par rapport aux objectifs de productivité, de création d’emploi qualifié et de compétitivité structurelle. Ceci met en exergue l’existence de plusieurs lacunes de ce programme et donc, les impératifs d’une politique industrielle tunisienne plus volontariste et ciblée de manière plus avisée, pour que s’opère et se maintienne un processus de reconversion compétitive du secteur et de création d’avantages comparatifs industriels. Mots clés : Mondialisation, programme de mise à niveau (PMN), politique industrielle, compétitivité. While some see in the globalization process a denial of the active industrial policy, others consider that it is this process itself that arouses its revival. The study of the Tunisian experience consolidates this last idea, in the sense that the recent adoption of the industry upgrading program, moderates the neutrality of industrial policy, proclaimed Within the framework of the Structural Adjustment Plan and officialized in 1993. This program reveals a kind of renewed interest for a targeted industrial policy, in response to the stakes of globalization and the free trade agreement with the European Union. The aim of this paper is to propose an evaluation of the upgrading program efficiency, as a main means of the current Tunisian industrial policy. Our study, based on the analysis of the program contents and the data processing of a survey led on one hundred companies, shows a mitigated global efficiency of the upgrading program, regarding to the objectives of productivity, qualified employment creation and structural competitiveness. This highlights the existence of several gaps in the program and thus, the need of a more voluntarist Tunisian industrial policy; which policy should be targeted in a more advised way, so that a process of competitive reconversion of the sector and of creation of industrial comparative advantages could occur and be maintained. Key words: Globalization, upgrading program, industrial policy, competitiveness.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation in its series Working Papers with number 203.

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    Length: 40 pages
    Date of creation: Nov 2008
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    Publication status: Published in Cahiers du Lab.RII, December 2008
    Handle: RePEc:rii:riidoc:203

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    Keywords: Globalization; upgrading program; industrial policy; competitiveness;

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