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Propriété industrielle et biotechnologies :Application au règne végétal (Industrial property and biotechnology: an application to the plant kingdom)

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  • Philippe Chagnon

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    (labrii, ULCO)

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    Abstract

    Mises en place progressivement au cours du XXeme siècle en Europe et aux Etats-Unis. Elles ont suivi les avancées scientifiques réalisées à partir des premières recherches en génétique et ont pris leur essor après le développement des outils biologiques et techniques moléculaires apparus à la fin des années 1960. Nous distinguons trois périodes dans la création de matériel végétal qui ont mobilisé des acteurs spécifiques et auxquelles correspondent des systèmes de protection distincts : les paysans procédaient à une sélection empirique des végétaux pendant la période traditionnelle et n’obtenaient pas de monopoles sur le résultat de leur activité ; les avancées scientifiques et techniques (lois de l’hérédité, biotechnologies, etc.) caractérisent la période conventionnelle, au cours de laquelle les institutions publiques et les organismes agricoles deviennent des acteurs essentiels et où se construit le système de protection par certificat d’obtention végétale. Enfin, la période moderne est marquée par l’émergence des technosciences, impulsées par les firmes biotechnologiques qui agissent pour renforcer les droits privatifs (brevets sur des organismes vivants) afin de rentabiliser leurs investissements. In this document, we study the forms of protection of biological innovations developed during the 20th century in Europe and in the United States. They have followed the results of the scientific progress based on the first research in genetics and have gained ground with the creation of biologic tools and molecular techniques at the end of the 1960s. We present three periods in the creation of vegetal material, which have involved specific actors and to which correspond distinct systems of protection: during the traditional period, farmers empirically selected plants and did not obtain monopolies on their achievements. The conventional period is characterized by scientific and technical progress (heredity laws, biotechnology, etc.), the emergence of public institutions and agriculture organisms as main actors, and the development of a system of protection based on plant variety protection certificates. Finally, during the modern period, technosciences are developed with the support of biotechnological firms, that act to reinforce privative rights (patents on living parts) in order to recoup their investments.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation in its series Working Papers with number 148.

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    Length: 42 pages
    Date of creation: Apr 2007
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: Published in Cahiers du Lab.RII, Avril 2007
    Handle: RePEc:rii:riidoc:148

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    Keywords: industrial property; biotechnology; plant kingdom; biological innovations;

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