Defense and Inequality: Evidence from Selected ASIAN Countries
AbstractThis paper examines the causality between military expenditure and income inequality in selected Asian countries namely Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, India and South Korea for the period 1970-2005. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing procedure is employed to (1) analyze the impact of military expenditure on income inequality and (2) the impact of income inequality on military expenditure as well. Interestingly our results indicate one way causality running from military expenditure to income inequality only for the case of Malaysia and bidirectional causality for the case of Singapore. As for the remaining countries, no meaningful relationship could be detected and it can be seen as sign of good governance in these countries.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 11916.
Date of creation: 13 Sep 2008
Date of revision:
defense spending; ARDL; Income Inequality;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution
- E20 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2008-12-07 (All new papers)
- NEP-CWA-2008-12-07 (Central & Western Asia)
- NEP-SEA-2008-12-07 (South East Asia)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Julide Yildirim & Selami Sezgin & Nadir Ocal, 2005. "Military Expenditure And Economic Growth In Middle Eastern Countries: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 283-295.
- Kollias, Christos & Manolas, George & Paleologou, Suzanna-Maria, 2004. "Defence expenditure and economic growth in the European Union: A causality analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 553-569, July.
- M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
- Julide Yildirim & Nadir Ocal, 2006. "Arms Race And Economic Growth: The Case Of India And Pakistan," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 37-45.
- Ucal, Meltem & Karabulut, Gokhan & Bilgin, Mehmet Huseyin, 2009. "Military Expenditures and Inequality: Empirical Evidence from Israel," MPRA Paper 48643, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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