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Globalisation and Inflation in the OECD Economies

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  • Nigel Pain
  • Isabell Koske
  • Marte Sollie

Abstract

Over the past 25 years inflation has moderated considerably in all OECD economies. At the same time, the production of many goods and services has become increasingly internationalised and the level of trade between the OECD and non-OECD economies has risen markedly. This paper investigates the extent to which the observed changes in the inflation process can be attributed to the increasing integration of non-OECD economies into the global economy. The results of the analysis show that i) import prices have become a more important driver of domestic consumer prices since the mid-1990s; ii) the sensitivity of inflation to domestic economic conditions has declined whereas the sensitivity to foreign economic conditions has risen, working through import prices; and iii) the strong GDP growth in the non-OECD economies over the past five years has contributed to the growth of real oil and metals prices. A scenario analysis shows that globalisation has put upward pressure on inflation via higher commodity prices and downward pressure via lower non-commodity import prices with the latter effect having dominated in most OECD economies. Mondialisation et inflation dans les économies de l'OCDE Au cours des 25 dernières années, l’inflation a considérablement diminué dans toutes les économies de l'OCDE. Pendant ce temps, la production de nombreux biens et services est devenue de plus en plus internationalisée et le niveau du commerce entre les pays de l'OCDE et les pays non membres a sensiblement augmenté. Ce papier étudie dans quelle mesure les changements observés dans le mécanisme d'inflation peuvent être attribués à l'intégration croissante des pays non membres de l'OCDE dans l'économie mondiale. Les résultats de l'analyse montrent que i) les prix d'importation jouent un rôle plus important dans la détermination des prix de consommation domestiques depuis le milieu des années 1990 ; ii) la sensibilité de l'inflation aux conditions économiques domestiques a diminué alors que la sensibilité aux conditions économiques extérieures a augmenté, en jouant à travers les prix d'importation ; et iii) la croissance forte du PIB dans les pays non membres au cours des cinq dernières années a contribué à l'augmentation des prix réels du pétrole et des métaux. Les simulations montrent que la globalisation a entraîné des pressions inflationnistes via des prix des matières premières plus élevés et des pressions désinflationnistes via des prix des importations des produits hors matières premières plus faibles. Le dernier effet semble avoir dominé dans la plupart des pays de l'OCDE.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by OECD Publishing in its series OECD Economics Department Working Papers with number 524.

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Date of creation: 21 Nov 2006
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Handle: RePEc:oec:ecoaaa:524-en

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Related research

Keywords: simulation; monetary policy; inflation; globalisation; simulation; inflation; mondialisation; politique monétaire;

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