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Répartitions modales urbaines, externalités et instauration de péages : le cas des externalités de congestion et des externalités modales croisées

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  • Mirabel François

Abstract

[fre] Répartitions modales urbaines, externalités et instauration de péages. Le cas des externalités de congestion et des « externalités modales croisées ». . Cet article se propose d'analyser les répartitions des usagers entre l'automobile et les bus dans le cadre des déplacements urbains domicile-travail. Dans ce contexte, l'objectif de cet article est de mettre en lumière deux types d'externalités générées par les automobilistes : une externalité « classique » de congestion qui résulte des pertes de temps que chaque individu impose aux autres automobilistes ; une externalité « modale croisée » que les usagers des voitures particulières imposent indirectement aux utilisateurs des transports collectifs du fait de la présence de rendements d'échelle de « densité de trafic » dans le secteur des bus. Nous montrerons alors que la présence de telles externalités doit inciter les autorités à mettre en place un mécanisme de taxes-subventions pour restaurer l'optimum collectif. [eng] Urban modal split, externalities and urban road pricing: the cases of congestion externalities and "cross-modal externalities". . This paper displays a theoretical analysis of the commuters modal split be­tween car and mass transit. In such a case, the aim of the paper is to identify two types of externalities: the congestion externality that each car user inflicts directly on the other car users; the "cross-modal externality" that each car user inflicts indirectly on transit passengers because of the economies of traffic density in the public transport sector. The presence of such externalities might encourage the authorities to introduce taxes and subsidies in order to restore social optimum.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CREDEN (Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit de l'Energie), Faculty of Economics, University of Montpellier 1 in its series Cahiers du CREDEN (CREDEN Working Papers) with number 97.02.06.

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Length: 40 pages abstract : This working paper displays a theoretical analysis of the commuters modal split between car and mass transit. In such a case, the aim of the paper is to identify two types of externalities: the congestion externality that each car user inflicts directly on the other car users ; the "crossmodal externality" that each car user inflicts indirectly on transit passengers because of the economies of traffic density in the public transport sector. The presence of such externalities might encourage the authorities to introduce taxes and subsidies in order to restore social optimum.
Date of creation: 1997
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mop:credwp:97.02.06

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Postal: CREDEN, Faculté d'Economie, Avenue Raymond Dugrand, CS 79606, 34960 MONTPELLIER Cedex 2, France
Phone: 33 (0)4 67 15 83 60
Fax: 33 (0)4 67 15 84 04
Web page: http://www.creden.univ-montp1.fr
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Keywords: EXTERNALITIES ; ECONOMIES OF SCALE ; URBAN TOLL ; URBAN TRANSPORTATION;

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