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Les analyses qualitatives de la pauvreté : continuité ou rupture ?

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La prise en compte des multiples dimensions de la pauvreté ainsi que le repérage de nouvelles formes de pauvreté ont conduit à un enrichissement progressif des thématiques liées à l'analyse de ce phénomène économique et social. Les méthodologies dites qualitatives se sont développées afin de répondre à ces nouveaux questionnements en prenant en compte les perceptions de la pauvreté ainsi que les aspects sociaux et culturels conjointement aux aspects strictement économiques. De part leur cadre paradigmatique compréhensif, elles s'inscrivent en rupture par rapport aux approches standards de la pauvreté. En retenant un concept de bien-être fondé sur les réalités vécues de la pauvreté, les approches qualitatives ont produit des résultats centraux notamment en ce qui concerne l'identification de la pauvreté et l'analyse du processus de la pauvreté. Cependant, les analyses qualitatives sont profondément complémentaires des analyses quantitatives. En effet les premières sont caractérisées par l'observation du singulier quand les secondes ont pour objectif le repérage de relations stables et régulières. La combinaison qualitatif-quantitatif permet ainsi d'enrichir l'analyse de la pauvreté. Investigations about poverty dimensions and new forms of poverty have broadened the concept of poverty and, as a consequence, the scientific debate. Qualitative methods are a way to take into account these new issues by intergrating on the one hand, individual perceptions ofpoverty, and, on the other hand, cultural, social and economic aspects. Actualy, one of the mainquestions concerns continuity or change between the different kinds of approaches : qualitative or quantitative ones. There is an epistemologic gap. Qualitative approaches — that rely on self-perception of well-being by individuals — appear to be more relevant than standards methodsin order to identify who the poors really are. Nevertheless both of these approaches are fully complementary. As a matter of fact, the first one focuses on the observation of which is particular, meanwhile the second one deals wilth the raising of regular and stable relations. Combining qualitative and quantitative investigations permits then to improve poverty analysis.(Full text in French)

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Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 81.

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Length: 17 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2003
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Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:81

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  1. Kanbur, Ravi & Squire, Lyn, 1999. "The Evolution of Thinking About Poverty: Exploring the Interactions," Working Papers 127697, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
  2. Ravallion, Martin & Lokshin, Michael, 2001. "Identifying Welfare Effects from Subjective Questions," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(271), pages 335-57, August.
  3. Jesko Hentschel, 1999. "Contextuality and data collection methods: A framework and application to health service utilisation," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(4), pages 64-94.
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