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Envois de fonds et altruisme. Le cas des Comores

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  • Imani Younoussa

    (GED, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

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    Abstract

    Il est admis que les envois de fonds jouent un rôle important dans les revenus des ménages des pays en développement. Des discussions existent sur les motifs qui expliquent les envois de fonds. Ils sont généralement de deux sortes : de l’altruisme et de l’intérêt personnel. Les études récentes rajoutent un troisième motif pour les envois de fonds. C’est la combinaison entre l’altruisme pur et l’intérêt personnel : « l’altruisme tempéré ». Sur le plan microéconomique, deux modèles ont servi pour tester l’altruisme et l’intérêt personnel : (i) un modèle de sélection, qu’on peut aussi appeler modèle de décision d’envoi de fonds, qui est estimé sur l’ensemble des ménages (ii) le deuxième modèle estime le montant des envois de fonds sur les seuls ménages bénéficiaires des envois de fonds. Ce modèle introduit les revenus des ménages comme variable d’intérêt. Sur le plan macro économique, l’altruisme pur sera mesuré par l’évolution du montant des envois de fonds en fonction de l’évolution du niveau de difficultés rencontré dans le pays. On va ainsi estimer un modèle qui met en relation les « envois de fonds » avec une variable qui reflète l’évolution des «difficultés économiques» dans le pays. Ici, assimilé au revenu agricole. Utilisant les deux approches, micro économiques et macro économiques, nous avons abouti à la même conclusion : d’autres motifs que l’altruisme pur expliquent les envois de fonds à destination des Comores. It is allowed that the remittances play an important part in the households income, in the developing countries. Discussions exist on the motivation which explain the remittances. They are generally of two kinds: altruism and self interest. The recent studies add a third motivation for remittances. It is the combination between the pure altruism and the self interest : the "moderate altruism". On the microeconomic level, two models were used to test the altruism and self interest: (i) a model of selection, called also model of remittances decision, which is estimated on the whole of the households (ii) the second model estimate the amount of remittances, on the only remittances benefits. This model introduce the households income as interest variable. On the macroeconomic level, the pure altruism will be measured by the evolution of the amount of the remittances according to the evolution of "hardship". One thus, a remittances model will estimate with an explanatory variable which proxy the evolution of the “hardship” in the country. Here, reflected by the agricultural income. Using the two methods : microeconomic and macroeconomic, we found the same conclusion: other motivations than only the pure altruism explain the remittances to the Comoros. (Full text in french)

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    Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 168.

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    Length: 12 pages
    Date of creation: Jul 2011
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    Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:168

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    1. Hoddinott, John, 1994. "A Model of Migration and Remittances Applied to Western Kenya," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(3), pages 459-76, July.
    2. Rapoport, Hillel & Docquier, Frédéric, 2005. "The Economics of Migrants’ Remittances," IZA Discussion Papers 1531, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Lucas, Robert E B & Stark, Oded, 1985. "Motivations to Remit: Evidence from Botswana," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 93(5), pages 901-18, October.
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