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Rediscutindo a Delimitação das Regiões Metropolitanas no Brasil: Um Exercício a Partir dos Critérios da Década de 1970

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  • Maria Luisa G. Castello Branco
  • Rafael Henrique Moraes Pereira
  • Vanessa Gapriotti Nadalin

Abstract

Desde a Constituição Federal de 1988 (CF/1988) os governos estaduais assumiram a atribuição de instituir suas próprias regiões metropolitanas (RMs). Em geral, há pouca informação acerca dos critérios utilizados para justificar a delimitação dos municípios pertencentes ao perímetro metropolitano dessas regiões. Como consequência, não é possível avaliar os prós e contras das metodologias utilizadas. Além disso, ficam comprometidas as análises comparativas acerca do desempenho de indicadores sociais e econômicos nessas áreas. A discussão de uma metodologia única para delimitação de RMs no Brasil vem num momento oportuno, uma vez que, no Congresso Nacional, está tramitando um projeto de lei sobre este tema (conhecido como Estatuto da Metrópole). Visando contribuir neste debate, este estudo simula quais seriam as RMs estimadas para o Brasil no ano de 2010 caso fosse aplicado um único conjunto de critérios, seguindo-se uma mesma metodologia para todo o país. Neste exercício, foram adotados como referência os mesmos critérios utilizados na década de 1970 para definição das nove primeiras RMs brasileiras com pequenas adaptações. Os resultados da simulação são comparados àquelas RMs estaduais reconhecidas oficialmente na data do Censo Demográfico 2010 e àquelas primeiras RMs oficializadas na década de 1970. Em comparação às RMs estaduais oficiais de 2010, os resultados obtidos apresentam um “Brasil metropolitano” composto por i) um menor número de RMs; ii) englobando em torno da metade do número de municípios; iii) com maior nível de integração por deslocamentos casa-trabalho; iv) uma área territorial cerca de três vezes mais compacta e mais densa; e ainda v) com mínimas diferenças em termos de porte populacional e econômico. Since the National Constitution of 1988, state governments are responsible for defining their own metropolitan areas in Brazil. However, the criteria for boundaries delimitation are not clearly defined as a rule. As a consequence, it is not possible to weigh the pros and cons of the employed methodologies. Furthermore, comparative analysis on the performance of social and economic indicators in these metropolitan areas can . be compromised as result of using multiple methodologies for defining territorial limits. The discussion of this issue could not be more timely, as the National Congress is currently debating a bill (aka Statute of the Metropolis) that proposes one single method for defining national metropolitan areas and its boundaries. To contribute to this debate, we estimate in this paper the metropolitan areas Brazil would have in 2010 by applying to the whole country the same criteria and following one single method. For this purpose, we have adopted the same method and criteria originally used for the definition of the first metropolitan areas of the country in the 1970’s, with minor adjustments. The obtained results are then compared with the official metropolitan areas showing rather different figures. Compared with official areas, our estimates show a metropolitan Brazil i) comprising a smaller number of metropolitan areas; ii) covering about half the number of municipalities; iii) with stronger commuting ties; iv) occupying a land area about three times more compact and dense; and yet v) with minor differences in terms of population size and GDP.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1860.

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Length: 50 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1860

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