Estimates of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Australia: A Multidimensional Approach
AbstractWe measure the extent of poverty and social exclusion in Australia using data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey. For each individual, we construct a measure of social exclusion that recognises its multidimensionality, including its potential variability in depth at a point in time and in persistence over time. We distinguish seven dimensions or domains, as proposed in Scutella et al. (2009): material resources; employment; education and skills; health and disability; social; community; and personal safety. For each of these seven domains, several indicators of social exclusion are produced. A simple ‘sum-score’ method is then used to estimate the extent or depth of exclusion, with our measure a function of both the number of domains in which exclusion is experienced and the number of indicators of exclusion present within each domain. Sensitivity of findings to alternative weighting regimes for the indicators and to alternative methods, proposed by Capellari and Jenkins (2007), is examined. Persistence of exclusion is also briefly considered. Our exclusion measure identifies 20 to 30 per cent of the Australian population aged 15 years and over as experiencing ‘marginal exclusion’ at any given point in time. Four to six per cent are ‘deeply excluded’, and less than one per cent are ‘very deeply excluded’. We find that, although there are commonalities in the demographic composition of the socially excluded and the income poor, there are also some important differences. For example, persons 65 years and over represent a much smaller share of the most ‘excluded’ group than they do of the ‘poorest’; and couple and single families with children represent a larger share of the excluded than they do of the poor.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne in its series Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series with number wp2009n26.
Length: 68 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2009
Date of revision:
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Postal: Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 Australia
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This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2010-04-17 (All new papers)
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- Aaron Nicholas & Ranjan Ray, 2012.
"Duration and Persistence in Multidimensional Deprivation: Methodology and Australian Application,"
The Economic Record,
The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 88(280), pages 106-126, 03.
- Aaron Nicholas & Ranjan Ray, 2011. "Duration and Persistence in Multidimensional Deprivation: Methodology and Australian Application," Monash Economics Working Papers 10-11, Monash University, Department of Economics.
- Francisco Azpitarte, 2012. "Was Economic Growth in Australia Good for the Income-Poor? and for the Multidimensionally-Poor?," Working Papers 278, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
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