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Bank regulation, capital and credit supply: Measuring the Impact of Prudential Standards

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Author Info

  • William Francis

    (Financial Services Authority)

  • Matthew Osborne

    ()
    (Financial Services Authority)

Abstract

The existence of a “bank capital channel”, where shocks to a bank’s capital affect the level and composition of its assets, implies that changes in bank capital regulation have implications for macroeconomic outcomes, since profit-maximising banks may respond by altering credit supply or making other changes to their asset mix. The existence of such a channel requires (i) that banks do not have excess capital with which to insulate credit supply from regulatory changes, (ii) raising capital is costly for banks, and (iii) firms and consumers in the economy are to some extent dependent on banks for credit. This study investigates evidence on the existence of a bank capital channel in the UK lending market. We estimate a long-run internal target risk-weighted capital ratio for each bank in the UK which is found to be a function of the capital requirements set for individual banks by the FSA and the Bank of England as the previous supervisor (Although within the FSA’s regulatory capital framework the FSA’s view of the capital that an individual bank should hold is given to the firm through individual capital guidance, for reasons of simplicity/consistency this paper refers throughout to “capital requirements”). We further find that in the period 1996-2007, banks with surpluses (deficits) of capital relative to this target tend to have higher (lower) growth in credit and other on- and off-balance sheet asset measures, and lower (higher) growth in regulatory capital and tier 1 capital. These findings have important implications for the assessment of changes to the design and calibration of capital requirements, since while tighter standards may produce significant benefits such as greater financial stability and a lower probability of crisis events, our results suggest that they may also have costs in terms of reduced loan supply. We find that a single percentage point increase in 2002 would have reduced lending by 1.2% and total risk weighted assets by 2.4% after four years. We also simulate the impact of a countercyclical capital requirement imposing three one-point rises in capital requirements in 1997, 2001 and 2003. By the end of 2007, these might have reduced the stock of lending by 5.2% and total risk-weighted assets by 10.2%.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Financial Services Authority in its series Occasional Papers with number 36.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:fsa:occpap:36

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Related research

Keywords: bank; capital; financial regulation; prudential policy; credit; lending;

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Cited by:
  1. Darracq Pariès, Matthieu & Kok, Christoffer & Rodriguez-Palenzuela, Diego, 2010. "Macroeconomic propagation under different regulatory regimes: Evidence from an estimated DSGE model for the euro area," Working Paper Series 1251, European Central Bank.
  2. Athanasoglou, Panayiotis P. & Daniilidis, Ioannis & Delis, Manthos D., 2014. "Bank procyclicality and output: Issues and policies," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 58-83.
  3. Claudia M. Buch & Esteban Prieto, 2012. "Do Better Capitalized Banks Lend Less? Long-Run Panel Evidence from Germany," IAW Discussion Papers 84, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
  4. Shekhar Aiyar & Charles W. Calomiris & Tomasz Wieladek, 2012. "Does Macro-Pru Leak? Evidence from a UK Policy Experiment," NBER Working Papers 17822, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Noss, Joseph & Toffano, Priscilla, 2014. "Estimating the impact of changes in aggregate bank capital requirements during an upswing," Bank of England working papers 494, Bank of England.
  6. Thomas F. Cosimano & Dalia Hakura, 2011. "Bank Behavior in Response to Basel Iii," IMF Working Papers 11/119, International Monetary Fund.
  7. Robert-Paul Berben & Beata Bierut & Jan Willem van den End & Jan Kakes, 2010. "Macro-effects of higher capital and liquidity requirements for banks," DNB Occasional Studies 803, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  8. R. Glenn Hubbard, 2013. "Financial regulatory reform: a progress report," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 181-198.
  9. Panayiotis P. Athanasoglou & Ioannis Daniilidis, 2011. "Procyclicality in the banking industry: causes, consequences and response," Working Papers 139, Bank of Greece.
  10. Ignacio Hernando & Ernesto Villanueva, 2012. "The recent slowdown of bank lending in Spain: are supply-side factors relevant?," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 1206, Banco de Espa�a.
  11. Bruno Martins & Ricardo Schechtman, 2013. "Loan Pricing Following a Macro Prudential Within-Sector Capital Measure," Working Papers Series 323, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
  12. Scott Roger & Jan Vlcek, 2011. "Macroeconomic Costs of Higher Bank Capital and Liquidity Requirements," IMF Working Papers 11/103, International Monetary Fund.
  13. Maurin, Laurent & Toivanen, Mervi, 2012. "Risk, capital buffer and bank lending: a granular approach to the adjustment of euro area banks," Working Paper Series 1499, European Central Bank.
  14. Markus Behn & Rainer Haselmann & Paul Wachtel, 2013. "Pro-Cyclical Capital Regulation and Lending," Working Papers 13-11, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
  15. Bridges, Jonathan & Gregory, David & Nielsen, Mette & Pezzini, Silvia & Radia, Amar & Spaltro, Marco, 2014. "The impact of capital requirements on bank lending," Bank of England working papers 486, Bank of England.

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