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Deregulation and efficiency: the case of private Korean banks

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  • Jonathan Hao
  • William C. Hunter
  • Won Keun Yang
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    Abstract

    This paper examines the productive efficiency of a sample of private Korean banks over the 1985 to 1995 time period. The goal of the analysis is to identify the key determinants of Korean bank efficiency (inefficiency) following the program of deregulation initiated by the government in the early 1980s and augmented in the early 1990s. Using the stochastic frontier cost function approach, efficiency scores were determined for each bank in the sample. A second stage efficiency regression was then estimated to identify the key determinants of operating efficiency. In general, the results show that banks with higher rates of asset growth, fewer employees per million won of assets, larger amounts of core deposits, and lower expense ratios were more efficient. In addition, banks which branched nationwide were found to be more efficient. The financial deregulation of 1991 was found to have had little or no significant effect on the level of sample bank efficiency.

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    File URL: http://www.chicagofed.org/digital_assets/publications/working_papers/1999/wp99_27.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago in its series Working Paper Series with number WP-99-27.

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    Date of creation: 1999
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    Handle: RePEc:fip:fedhwp:wp-99-27

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    Keywords: Banks and banking - Korea ; Korea;

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    References

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    1. Berger, Allen N. & Hancock, Diana & Humphrey, David B., 1993. "Bank efficiency derived from the profit function," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 317-347, April.
    2. Allen N. Berger & Loretta J. Mester, 1997. "Inside the Black Box: What Explains Differences in the Efficiencies of Financial Institutions?," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-04, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    3. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1997. "Efficiency of financial institutions: International survey and directions for future research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 175-212, April.
    4. DeYoung, Robert, 1997. "Comment on 'Operational efficiency in banking: An international perspective'," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(10), pages 1325-1329, October.
    5. Berger, Allen N. & Hunter, William C. & Timme, Stephen G., 1993. "The efficiency of financial institutions: A review and preview of research past, present and future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 221-249, April.
    6. Mester, Loretta J., 1996. "A study of bank efficiency taking into account risk-preferences," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 1025-1045, July.
    7. William C. Hunter, 1995. "Internal organization and economic performance: the case of large U.S. commercial banks," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Sep, pages 10-20.
    8. Kenneth Spong & Richard J. Sullivan & Robert DeYoung, 1995. "What makes a bank efficient? : a look at financial characteristics and management and ownership structure," Financial Industry Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Dec, pages 1-19.
    9. Gilbert, R. Alton & Wilson, Paul W., 1998. "Effects of Deregulation on the Productivity of Korean Banks," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 133-155, March.
    10. R. Barrell & R. Anderton & G.M. Caporale & J.W. in't Veld, 1993. "The World Economy," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 145(1), pages 43-63, August.
    11. Aigner, Dennis & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Peter, 1977. "Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 21-37, July.
    12. Jondrow, James & Knox Lovell, C. A. & Materov, Ivan S. & Schmidt, Peter, 1982. "On the estimation of technical inefficiency in the stochastic frontier production function model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 233-238, August.
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    Cited by:
    1. Ghosh, Saibal, 2010. "Credit Growth, Bank Soundness and Financial Fragility: Evidence from Indian Banking Sector," MPRA Paper 24715, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Das, Abhiman & Ghosh, Saibal, 2006. "Financial deregulation and efficiency: An empirical analysis of Indian banks during the post reform period," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 193-221.
    3. Laeven, Luc, 1999. "Risk and efficiency in East Asian banks," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2255, The World Bank.

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