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Commerce, croissance, pauvreté et inégalités dans les PED : une revue de littérature


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  • Jean-Pierre Cling


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    (english) This paper is dedicated to a theoretical and empirical survey of the relationship between trade, growth, poverty and inequality in developing countries. This relationship has been widely discussed by economists during the last few years. The first part presents the main stylised facts concerning this debate. In the second part, we recall that the results of empirical studies on the impact of openness (as measured by the protection rate) on growth are not robust. Some studies have therefore estimated the direct impact of trade on income or income growth. But this raises the problem of endogeneity of trade to income, knowing that openness defined according to trade cannot be easily related to trade policies. As it is shown in the third part of the paper, most empirical studies on the relationship between trade, poverty and inequality show that trade has contributed to increased inequality in developing countries, which contradicts the results of standard economic theory. The impact on poverty is more consistent to economic theory. These studies suggest that trade is not the main factor determining the evolution of poverty and inequality within countries. _________________________________ (français) Cet article présente une revue de littérature théorique et empirique sur la relation commercecroissance- pauvreté-inégalités dans les PED qui a été l’objet de nombreux débats parmi les économistes au cours de la période récente. Dans la première partie, nous présentons les grands faits stylisés concernant ces différents éléments. Dans la deuxième partie, on montre que les estimations empiriques concernant l’impact de l’ouverture commerciale, mesurée par le degré de protection, sur la croissance apparaissent peu robustes. Pour pallier ce problème, certaines études ont estimé directement l’impact du commerce sur le revenu ou la croissance économique. Mais l’endogénéité du commerce par rapport au revenu est délicate à prendre en compte, tandis que le taux d’ouverture ainsi défini ne peut être relié précisément aux politiques commerciales. Les études empiriques sur la relation commerce-inégalités-pauvreté sont discutées dans la troisième partie. La plupart de ces études considèrent que le commerce contribue à une hausse des inégalités salariales ou de revenus dans les PED, contrairement à ce que qu’indique la théorie standard. L’impact sur la pauvreté est plus conforme aux enseignements théoriques (plutôt positif, en particulier à travers l’impact sur la croissance). Ces travaux estiment toutefois que le commerce n’est pas le principal facteur influant sur l’évolution des inégalités et de la pauvreté.

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    Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2006/07.

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    Length: 32 pages
    Date of creation: Jun 2006
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    Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200607

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    Keywords: Commerce; croissance; pauvreté; inégalités; PED; Trade; Growth; poverty; inequalities; developing countries.;

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    Cited by:
    1. Maryline Huchet-Bourdon & Anna Lipchitz & Audrey Rousson, 2008. "Aid for trade in developing countries: complex linkages for real effectiveness," Post-Print hal-00729834, HAL.
    2. Caroline DAYMON, 2012. "Ouverture Commerciale, Inégalités De Revenu Et Répartition Salariale Dans Les Pays Du Sud Et De L’Est De La Méditerranée," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 35, pages 81-98.
    3. FE, Doukouré Charles, 2010. "Réduction de Droits de Douane et Convergence Réelle dans l'UEMOA
      [Tariffs Reduction and Real Convergence in WAEMU]
      ," MPRA Paper 26763, University Library of Munich, Germany.


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