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Growth and Fluctuations of Personal Income

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  • Yoshi Fujiwara
  • Wataru Souma
  • Hideaki Aoyama
  • Taisei Kaizoji
  • Masanao Aoki

Abstract

Pareto's law states that the distribution of personal income obeys a power-law in the high-income range, and has been supported by international observations. Researchers have proposed models over a century since its discovery. However, the dynamical nature of personal income has been little studied hitherto, mostly due to the lack of empirical work. Here we report the first such study, an examination of the fluctuations in personal income of about 80,000 high-income taxpayers in Japan for two consecutive years, 1997 and 1998, when the economy was relatively stable. We find that the distribution of the growth rate in one year is independent of income in the previous year. This fact, combined with an approximate time-reversal symmetry, leads to the Pareto law, thereby explaining it as a consequence of a stable economy. We also derive a scaling relation between positive and negative growth rates, and show good agreement with the data. These findings provide the direct observation of the dynamical process of personal income flow not yet studied as much as for companies.

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Paper provided by arXiv.org in its series Papers with number cond-mat/0208398.

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Date of creation: Aug 2002
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Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:cond-mat/0208398

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  1. Aoki,Masanao, 2001. "Modeling Aggregate Behavior and Fluctuations in Economics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521781268, April.
  2. Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe & Mézard, Marc, 2000. "Wealth condensation in a simple model of economy," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 282(3), pages 536-545.
  3. Jean-Philippe Bouchaud & Marc Mezard, 2000. "Wealth condensation in a simple model of economy," Science & Finance (CFM) working paper archive 500026, Science & Finance, Capital Fund Management.
  4. Adrian Dragulescu & Victor M. Yakovenko, 2001. "Exponential and power-law probability distributions of wealth and income in the United Kingdom and the United States," Papers cond-mat/0103544, arXiv.org, revised Mar 2001.
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Cited by:
  1. Giulio Bottazzi, 2007. "On the Irreconcilability of Pareto and Gibrat Laws," LEM Papers Series 2007/10, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
  2. Tomson Ogwang, 2011. "Power laws in top wealth distributions: evidence from Canada," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 473-486, October.
  3. Anirban Chakraborti & Ioane Muni Toke & Marco Patriarca & Frédéric Abergel, 2011. "Econophysics: agent-based models," Post-Print hal-00621059, HAL.
  4. Anand Banerjee & Victor M. Yakovenko, 2009. "Universal patterns of inequality," Papers 0912.4898, arXiv.org, revised Apr 2010.
  5. Victor M. Yakovenko, 2012. "Applications of statistical mechanics to economics: Entropic origin of the probability distributions of money, income, and energy consumption," Papers 1204.6483, arXiv.org.
  6. Victor M. Yakovenko & J. Barkley Rosser, 2009. "Colloquium: Statistical mechanics of money, wealth, and income," Papers 0905.1518, arXiv.org, revised Dec 2009.
  7. Ogwang, Tomson, 2013. "Is the wealth of the world’s billionaires Paretian?," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(4), pages 757-762.
  8. Guo, Qiang & Gao, Li, 2012. "Distribution of individual incomes in China between 1992 and 2009," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 391(21), pages 5139-5145.
  9. Chakrabarti, Anindya S. & Chakrabarti, Bikas K., 2010. "Statistical theories of income and wealth distribution," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy, vol. 4(4), pages 1-31.
  10. Sitabhra Sinha, 2005. "The Rich Are Different!: Pareto Law from asymmetric interactions in asset exchange models," Papers physics/0504197, arXiv.org.
  11. Aoyama, Hideaki & Fujiwara, Yoshi & Souma, Wataru, 2004. "Kinematics and dynamics of Pareto–Zipf's law and Gibrat's law," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 344(1), pages 117-121.
  12. Cui, Jian & Pan, Qiuhui & Qian, Qian & He, Mingfeng & Sun, Qilin, 2013. "A multi-agent dynamic model based on different kinds of bequests," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 392(6), pages 1393-1397.
  13. Patriarca, Marco & Chakraborti, Anirban & Germano, Guido, 2006. "Influence of saving propensity on the power-law tail of the wealth distribution," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 369(2), pages 723-736.

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