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World military expenditures

In: Handbook of Defense Economics

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  • Brzoska, Michael

Abstract

Military expenditure is difficult to define. Major issues are functional versus institutional approaches to defense, indirect and intangible costs and benefits and current versus comprehensive accounting. Authoritative institutions have adopted standard definitions but national governments are free to use their own definitions. Specific inflation pressures complicate the creation of real time series of military expenditures. International comparisons are influenced by the choice of exchange rates. For some countries, no credible data are available. Data series on military expenditures and arms transfers must be used with caution as the publishing institutions have only limited resources to deal with the numerous conceptual and practical problems.

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This chapter was published in:

  • Keith Hartley & Todd Sandler (ed.), 1995. "Handbook of Defense Economics," Handbook of Defense Economics, Elsevier, edition 1, volume 1, number 1, 00.
    This item is provided by Elsevier in its series Handbook of Defense Economics with number 1-03.

    Handle: RePEc:eee:hdechp:1-03

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookseriesdescription.cws_home/BS_HE/description

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    Cited by:
    1. Sung-Ha Hwang, 2011. "Technology of military con ict, military spending, and war," Working Papers 1117, Research Institute for Market Economy, Sogang University.
    2. Alptekin, Aynur & Levine, Paul, 2012. "Military expenditure and economic growth: A meta-analysis," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 636-650.
    3. Slobodanka B. Teodosijevic, 2003. "Armed Conflicts and Food Security," Working Papers 03-11, Agricultural and Development Economics Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO - ESA).
    4. Indra de Soysa & Eric Neumayer, 2005. "Disarming Fears of Diversity: Ethnic Heterogeneity and State Militarization, 1988–2002," Public Economics 0503008, EconWPA, revised 01 Sep 2005.
    5. Janvier Nkurunziza, 2004. "How Long Can Inflation Tax Compensate For The Loss Of Government Revenue In War Economies? Evidence From Burundi," Development and Comp Systems 0409065, EconWPA.
    6. Chang, Wen-ya & Tsai, Hsueh-fang & Lai, Ching-chong, 2002. "Anticipated foreign military threat, arms accumulation, and the current account in a small open economy," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(7), pages 1035-1052, December.
    7. Binyam Solomon, 2003. "Defence specific inflation: A Canadian perspective," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 19-36.
    8. Claudia Pérez- Forniés & Mª Dolores Gadea & Eva Pardos, 2004. "Gasto en defensa y renta en los países de la Alianza Atlántica (1960-2002)," Hacienda Pública Española, IEF, vol. 170(3), pages 137-153, september.
    9. Janvier Nkurunziza, 2004. "How long can inflation tax compensate for the loss Wof government revenue in war economics? Evidence from Burundi," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2004-19, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    10. Collier, Paul & Hoeffler, Anke, 2002. "Military expenditure - threats, aid, and arms races," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2927, The World Bank.

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