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Clusters Et Systèmes Locaux D'Innovation - Retour Critique Sur Les Hypothèses Naturalistes De Transmission Des Connaissances À L'Aide Des Catégories De L'Économie De La Proximité

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  • André TORRE

    ()
    (UMR SAD-APT, INA-PG,)

Abstract

With the return of polarization, and the emergence of poles of competitiveness and other networks of excellence, this article aims to conduct a critical analysis of clusters and local systems of innovation, by using the contributions of proximity economics. Authors generally tend to consider that the agglomeration of economic activities in one specific place is sufficient in itself to generate effects of localised development and to create efficient innovation systems at the local level. The hypothesis is that the transfer of knowledge (of tacit knowledge in particular) is facilitated by geographical proximity. The many failures, as well as the success often related to the history of th e very few efficient innovation systems, have encouraged us to distance from this naturalist hypothesis. In view of the theoretical hypotheses about knowledge transfer that underlie the notion of cluster and of the empirical findings based on several concrete cases, we question the relevance of this notion. First, we propose a critical presentation of the notion of cluster, by examining, in particular, the limits of the naturalist hypothesis according to which the tacit dimension of knowledge necessitates face-to-face relations that lead to the emergence of clusters (I). We then propose a reexamination of clusters, by showing how the use of two types of proximity (geographical and organised) makes it possible to qualify the performance of clusters as tools facilitating knowledge transfer (II). In a third section we discuss other forms of interactions between innovative activities that involve or do not involve geographical proximity, before presenting what we believe are the most profound causes of the processes of spatial agglomerations of research and innovative activities (III).

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var in its journal Région et Développement.

Volume (Year): 24 (2006)
Issue (Month): ()
Pages: 15-43

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Handle: RePEc:tou:journl:v:24:y:2006:p:15-43

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Related research

Keywords: CLUSTERS; PROXIMITÉ GÉOGRAPHIQUE; TRANSMISSION DES CONNAISSANCES;

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Cited by:
  1. Gadille, Martine & MÉhaut, Philippe & courault, Bruno, 2013. "Compétences et régulation des marchés du travail dans les pôles de compétitivité : le cas du pôle Pégase," Revue d'économie régionale et urbaine, Editions NecPlus, vol. 2013(02), pages 339-361, June.
  2. Maris CORIS (GREThA UMR CNRS 5113) & Vincent FRIGANT (GREThA UMR CNRS 5113) & Jean-Bernard LAYAN (GREThA UMR CNRS 5113) & Damien TALBOT (GREThA UMR CNRS 5113), 2009. "Spatial dynamics of firms (In French)," Cahiers du GREThA 2009-20, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée.
  3. Marie Ferru, 2012. "Partners connection process and geography of innovation: new insights from a comparative inter-organizational partnerships analysis," Working Papers hal-00461258, HAL.
  4. Virginie JACQUIER-ROUX & Christian LE BAS, 2008. "Localisation Des Activités De R&D Des Firmes Multinationales, Modes D’Organisation En Réseaux Et Transfert Transnational Des Connaissances : Un Cadre D’Analyse," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 28, pages 11-38.
  5. Nejla BEN ARFA & Karine DANIEL & Fanny FONTAINE, 2013. "Agri-Food Clusters: Is French Policy In Line With Real Spatial Dynamics?," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 38, pages 249-274.
  6. Abdirahman, Zam-Zam & Sauvee, Loic, 2012. "The Implementation of a Quality Management Standard in a Food SME: A Network Learning Perspective," International Journal on Food System Dynamics, International Center for Management, Communication, and Research, vol. 3(3).
  7. Faridah Djellal & FaÏz Gallouj, 2012. "Les réseaux d'innovation public-privé dans les services (RIPPS) ne sont pas des réseaux d'innovation (RI) comme les autres : quels enseignements pour les politiques publiques ?," Working Papers halshs-00657601, HAL.

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