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Le secteur public comme premier utilisateur d’innovations

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  • Dalpé, Robert

    (Département de science politique, Université de Montréal)

  • DeBresson, Christian

    (Département de sciences économiques, Université Concordia)

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    Abstract

    The role of public demand on innovation is the central theme of this exploratory study which tries to evaluate the weight of the canadian public sector as 1) first user of innovation; 2) user of inventions patented by Canadians; 3) buyer of manufactured products, 25% of innovations find their first use in the public sector, as do 13% of patents and 8% of the manufacturing production. This tremendous market power provides the state with significant impact on innovation, whether it applies an explicit procurement policy or not. Several questions need to be examined in order to develop a deeper understanding of the role of public purchasing and of its potential impact on technological development through such elements as: its buying power, its supply structure, the magnitude of its orders and its requirements concerning product characteristics and links with supply mechanisms. Cette étude exploratoire porte sur le rôle de la demande du secteur public au Canada dans l’innovation. On essaie d’estimer le poids du secteur public canadien en tant que 1) premier utilisateur d’innovations; 2) utilisateur d’inventions brevetées par des Canadiens; et 3) acheteur de biens manufacturés. Le secteur public est le premier utilisateur de 25 % des innovations et est un utilisateur potentiel de 13 % des brevets, alors qu’il achète 8 % de la production. L’État a ainsi un pouvoir de marché important, ce qui lui donne un impact significatif sur l’innovation, que les gouvernements appliquent ou non une politique explicite d’achat. Pour mieux comprendre le rôle de la demande publique, plusieurs questions devront être examinées : le pouvoir de marché, la structure industrielle de l’offre, la taille des commandes et les caractéristiques de la demande publique.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Société Canadienne de Science Economique in its journal L'Actualité économique.

    Volume (Year): 65 (1989)
    Issue (Month): 1 (mars)
    Pages: 53-70

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    Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:v:65:y:1989:i:1:p:53-70

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    Web page: http://www.scse.ca/
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    1. Bozeman, Barry & Link, Albert N., 1984. "Tax incentives for R&D: a critical evaluation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 21-31, February.
    2. Glen L. Urban & Eric von Hippel, 1988. "Lead User Analyses for the Development of New Industrial Products," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 34(5), pages 569-582, May.
    3. Von Hippel, Eric, 1978. "A customer-active paradigm for industrial product idea generation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 240-266, July.
    4. Jean-Pierre Ponssard, 1981. "Marchés publics et innovation : concurrence ou régulation ?," Revue Économique, Programme National Persée, vol. 32(1), pages 163-179.
    5. Eric von Hippel, 1986. "Lead Users: A Source of Novel Product Concepts," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 32(7), pages 791-805, July.
    6. Frederic Scherer, 1984. "Using Linked Patent and R&D Data to Measure InterindustryTechnology Flows," NBER Chapters, in: R & D, Patents, and Productivity, pages 417-464 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Mowery, David & Rosenberg, Nathan, 1979. "The influence of market demand upon innovation: a critical review of some recent empirical studies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 102-153, April.
    8. Dulude, Louise Séguin, 1982. "Les flux technologiques interindustriels : une analyse exploratoire du potentiel canadien," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 58(3), pages 259-281, juillet-s.
    9. Wright, Brian Davern, 1983. "The Economics of Invention Incentives: Patents, Prizes, and Research Contracts," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(4), pages 691-707, September.
    10. von Hippel, Eric, 1976. "The dominant role of users in the scientific instrument innovation process," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 212-239, July.
    11. Lichtenberg, Frank R, 1988. "The Private R&D Investment Response to Federal Design and Technical Competitions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(3), pages 550-59, June.
    12. Barry Bozeman & Albert Link, 1984. "Public support for private R&D: The case of the research tax credit," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 4(3), pages 370-382.
    13. Guth, Louis A & Schwartz, Robert A & Whitcomb, David K, 1977. "Buyer Concentration Ratios," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(4), pages 241-58, June.
    14. Preston McAfee, R. & McMillan, John, 1988. "Search mechanisms," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 99-123, February.
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