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Dinámica relacional interorganizacional para el desarrollo turístico. Los casos de Villa Gesell y Pinamar (Argentina)


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  • Gonzalo Matías Cruz
  • Juan Ignacio Pulido Fernández
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    Resumen: El trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar las relaciones producidas entre las organizaciones con capacidad de representar las diversas partes interesadas en torno a la actividad turística de Villa Gesell y Pinamar, permitiendo la obtención de información útil para mejorar las estrategias de participación e interacción. El objeto de estudio es abordado a partir del método de análisis de redes sociales y se complementa con un análisis de contenido de las relaciones. Los resultados permiten observar dificultades en la interacción entre los distintos sectores involucrados, sin embargo se advierte predisposición para la transformación de las circunstancias actuales en ambos destinos. Abstract: In recent years, the issue of development associated with tourism has generated a great debate in the scientific field, putting into question, especially, the actual capacity of tourism to boost profits that exceed the economic level, even questioning that in all circumstances and under all conditions, tourism is a tool that generates wealth (Pulido et al., 2008, Pulido and Solis, 2008). Tourism, due to its transversal and multidimensional nature, possesses the ability to position itself as a strategic option for local development, but its success or failure depends mainly on the territory proper planning and the active participation of various sectors of the community (OIT, 2004). In this sense, the generation of a tourism development model with aspirations to further develop the local territory, necessarily implies the involvement of stakeholders (or groups of actors with the capacity to influence or be influenced by the phenomenon). For this reason, it is essential to identify the different sectors involved and addressing the relationships that occur between them, considering that a change in the conditions under which they operate, will affect the model structure, affecting their development in the territory (Pulido, 2010). Consequently, the aim of this paper is to inquire about the links established between the organizations on tourism activity in Pinamar and Villa Gesell, two Argentine coastal destinations. The selected cases allow comparison of inter-organizational relationships in territories that are located just 25 km. away, with similar scales, physical characteristics and a tourism product based on the sun and the beach, but with different types of demand and a supply oriented to such flows. In this sense, research allows to identify specific features in the logic of interaction between public and private actors involved in tourism development in destinations that from a first perspective are conceived with similar characteristics but with different realities in their interior. Today, Villa Gesell and Pinamar pass through a turning point in the orientation and operation of tourist activity in their territories. There is a tendency to reorient tourism development strategies; however, it is possible to find certain difficulties in reconciling the various interests that exist. The public and private organizations and those belonging to the third sector, have the capacity to represent the various interests that coexist in a given territory. It hasn´t been detected scientific literature that corresponds directly with this object of study from the methodology described in Argentina. However, at the international level there are some studies (Currie, Seaton and Wesley, 2009, Medeiros and Bramwell, 1999; Merinero and Pulido, 2009, Pulido, 2010) that using methodologies of this type have obtained interesting results, in the analysis of networks of actors and their interrelationships, and what is even more important in designing strategies for the management of relational dynamics in these territories. In this sense, to fulfill the main objective, the research suggests, first, a quantitative social network analysis, which determines the overall structure of the network of actors, and the links established between them. Moreover, it is also implemented in this research, a qualitative approach to the study object from a content analysis of the relationships, which consists mainly of the detailed description of the main characteristics of the identified relationships. Tourism, considered as a complex system, includes multiple players with different characteristics which are related to each other and with the context. According to Jimenez (2005), the objective of the tourism system involves, tourist satisfaction and, in addition, the possibility of local community to benefit from the stay of visitors. As such, social network analysis allows identifying the elements that interact in the system and the underlying structure, constituting valuable information for the implementation of strategies aimed at strengthening the processes of interaction and participation among various stakeholders. From this method, it is possible to determine the structure of the network of organizations in an area. However, for in-depth information on the characteristics of the linkages that occur, it is necessary to incorporate a content analysis of relationships. The sum of both approaches allows carrying out a study approached from two perspectives that can cover more accurately the phenomenon. Obtaining the information involved, first, semi-structured interviews with key informants, which allowed the identification of those organizations with relevance to the study. Then a survey was applied to the organizations identified in the previous step, the information obtained was supplemented from various secondary sources. To carry out the processing of the data obtained in the first instance, organizations were to classified according to their belonging to the public, private or third sector. Useful information for analyzing the network structure was processed with the software UCINET 6, through which it was possible to generate a matrix that reflects mathematically the relationship between the actors. From the adjacency matrix, the software allowed the creation of density and centrality indicators (range, intermediation and closeness) and the development of the network graph. The main results show a great presence of the public sector and some organizations form the private sector in tourism development. In general, it can be seen that there have been some difficulties establishing contact between the sectors concerned in both cities. However, it is able to identify awareness and interest from organizations in issues concerning security, environment and local identity. Around these issues, which might be of general interest, it will be easier to build consensus among stakeholders. Even though this destinations are at a very primary consolidation of relations between the different actors who star tourism development thereof. This development is due more to a reactive response of the territory and the actor that operate in it, than to an orderly and planned course of action. Therefore, there is still a long way to what Jamal and Getz (1995) call "collaboration between stakeholders", but, as noted previously, there have been identified at some areas where it might be easier to initiate this collaborative process.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Universidades Públicas de Andalucía in its journal Revista de Estudios Regionales.

    Volume (Year): 02 (2012)
    Issue (Month): ()
    Pages: 167-194

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    Handle: RePEc:rer:articu:v:02:y:2012:p:167-194

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    Keywords: Actores locales; Desarrollo turístico; Dinámica relacional; Gestión de destinos; Argentina; Stakeholders; Tourist development; Relationships; Destinations management;

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