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Quinze ans de politique de l'emploi

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Author Info

  • Gérard Cornilleau
  • Pierre Marioni
  • Brigitte Roguet

Abstract

[fre] Confrontés depuis 1974 à une grave crise de l'emploi, et à une aggravation sans précédent du chômage en France, les gouvernements qui se sont succédés ne sont pas restés inactifs. D'importantes mesures ont été prises au cours des quinze der nières années tant pour stimuler l'emploi, que pour limiter la pro gression de la population active. L'ensemble de ces interventions publiques constitue ce qu'il est convenu d'appeler, depuis une dizaine d'années, la politique de emploi. La mesure des effets de cette politique était jusqu'à présent rendue difficile par l'absence de données statistiques synthétiques. Cet article a pour objet de combler cette lacune en procédant pour la première fois une évaluation des principaux «stocks» moyens de bénéficiaires de la politique de l'emploi depuis quinze ans. Il devient alors possible d'évaluer les conséquences sur le chômage et les principales grandeurs macroéconomiques des dispositifs mis en oeuvre. Les résultats obtenus montrent que cette politique a permis, au coeur de la crise de l'emploi, d'éviter le chômage plusieurs centaines de milliers de personnes. Cependant, les mécanismes de régulation macroéconomique ont eu comme conséquence de réduire le «rendement» des systèmes de gestion sociale du chômage. Une politique alternative de stimulation des créations d'emplois par la baisse du coût du travail (obtenue par réduction des cotisations sociales par exemple) n'aurait pas été à même de se substituer efficacement au «traitement» social du chômage aux pires moments de la crise de l'emploi. Pourtant, le retour de la croissance depuis quelques années permet d'envisager un redéploiement progressif de la politique de l'emploi dans cette direction. [eng] Since 1974, the government has been facing bad employment crisis and an unprecedent aggravation of unemployment. The response to this situation has been the implementation of active policies for employment creation and for limiting the increase of the labor force. This is what, in the last ten years, has been conventionally called «employment policy». Until recently, it has been difficult to quantify the effect of the employment policy because synthetic data were not available. The purpose of this article is to fill this gap by evaluating, for the first time, the number and the type of receipients of employment poleies in the last fifteen years. This allow us to evaluate the effect of these policies on unemployment and other macroeconomic indicators. Our results show that, in the middle of the employment crisis, the use of employment policies has allowed several hundreds of thousands of people to avoid unemployment. However, macroeconomic mechanisms have tended to decrease the «returns» of the system of «social management» of unemployment .The claim of our paper is that in the worst moments of the employment crisis, the alternative policy of stimulation of employment through decrease of labor costs (obtained, for example, through reduction of social contributions) would not have been as effective as direct social management of unemployment. On the other hand, we suggest that in the high growth situation of recent years, employment policy should move in that direction.

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/ofce.1990.1669
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File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/ofce_0751-6614_1990_num_31_1_1669/ofce_0751-6614_1990_num_31_1_1669.pdf?mode=light
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue de l'OFCE.

Volume (Year): 31 (1990)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 91-120

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rvofce:ofce_0751-6614_1990_num_31_1_1669

Note: DOI:10.3406/ofce.1990.1669
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Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/ofce

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Cited by:
  1. Buda, Rodolphe, 2011. "Séries longues d'emploi salarié régional sectoriel français 1967–2006
    [French sectoral and regional salaried employment long run time series 1967-2006]
    ," MPRA Paper 34888, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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