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Les origines de la croissance économique moderne: éducation et démographie en Angleterre (1650-1750)

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  • Jean-Charles Asselain
  • Christian Morrisson
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    Abstract

    [fre] Cet article montre que l'Angleterre à conjugué de 1650 à 1750 trois éléments : une croissance significative des salaires réels, une amélioration de la productivité dans l'agriculture et un freinage de la croissance démographique. Aucun pays n'avait réuni auparavant ces trois éléments qui ont joué un rôle clé dans le décollage de l'économie anglaise avant 1750-1800 et la révolution industrielle. Cette évolution démographique résulte d'un âge plus élevé au mariage et surtout d'un taux de célibat très supérieur à celui des autres pays. Ces deux phénomènes sont liés aux progrès de l'alphabétisation, y compris dans la population féminine. De plus, en ville une offre accrue de main- d'œuvre féminine a répondu à une demande croissante pour cette main-d'œuvre. Ces interactions entre éducation et démographie d'une part, la croissance de la production agicole totale et celle, plus rapide, de la production par actif grâce au progrès technique d'autre part, expliquent une hausse importante du niveau de vie entre 1650 et 1750 qui est attestée par de nombreux indices convergents. [eng] This article shows that three elements conflated in England from 1650 to 1750: a significant growth of real wages, an increased productivity in agriculture and a check of population increase. No other country before had managed to combine these three elements which played a key role in the take off of English economy before 1750-1800 and the Industrial Revolution. The demographic evolution resulted from marriages at an older age and moreover from a higher celibacy rate than in other countries. These two factors were related with the progress of literacy, including among female population. Also, an increased supply of female labour in cities met an increased demand for such labour. These interactions between education and demography on the one hand, the increase in global agricultural output and the faster increase in agricultural output per worker due to technical progress, on the other hand, explain the important rise in the standard of living between 1650 and 1750 which is documented by many concurring indicators.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/hes.2005.2544
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    File URL: http://www.persee.fr/articleAsPDF/hes_0752-5702_2005_num_24_2_2544/hes_0752-5702_2005_num_24_2_2544.pdf?mode=light
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Histoire, économie et société.

    Volume (Year): 24 (2005)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 195-220

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:hiseco:hes_0752-5702_2005_num_24_2_2544

    Note: DOI:10.3406/hes.2005.2544
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/hes

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    Cited by:
    1. Christian Morrisson & Fabrice Murtin, 2008. "L’inégalité mondiale de l’éducation et des revenus (1870-2000)," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 186(5), pages 39-46.

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