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Construire un indicateur de précarité : les étapes d'une démarche empirique

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  • André Villeneuve
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    Abstract

    [fre] Dans l'analyse des pauvretés, une attention croissante est accordée à la précarité. Le statisticien-sociologue a donc cherché à se saisir de cette notion. Il a dû alors affronter deux difficultés. D'une part la notion restait floue. D'autre part, l'enquête « Situations défavorisées » était la seule dont il pouvait utiliser les résultats; or l'élaboration de son questionnaire n'avait pas comporté de réflexion préalable sur la précarité. Malgré ces difficultés, un indicateur a pu être construit, fruit d'une démarche empirique en plusieurs étapes : repérage des questions de l'enquête relevant a priori de l'idée de précarité; examen de leur degré d'association mutuelle; construction d'un premier indicateur à six positions; vérification de la capacité de cet indicateur à faire sens, en particulier indépendamment de la notion de niveau de vie; enfin passage à un indicateur à trois positions plus utilisable. Cet indicateur a ensuite permis une première étude des individus en situation précaire. Ils sont plus nombreux chez les « cols bleus » que chez les cols blancs », ceci même à revenu égal. Ils ont souvent connu des problèmes à l'époque où ils dépendaient de leurs parents. Ils sont moins bien équipés en biens durables, toujours à revenu égal. [eng] Developing an indicator of precariousness: the steps of an empirical process - In the analysis of different categories of poverty, increasing attention has been accorded to precariousness. The statistician-sociologist, for this reason, has sought to grasp this notion. In so doing, he has had to confront two difficulties. On the one hand, the notion has always remained imprecise. On the other hand, the only source of utilisable results has been the survey "Underprivileged Situations", whose questionnaire was developed without prior reflection on precariousness. In spite of these difficulties, it has been possible to construct an indicator. It is the result of an empirical process in several steps: determination of the survey questions which o priori concern the idea of precariousness; examination of their degree of mutual association; construction of an initial six-position indicator; verification of the capacity of this indicator to make sense, in particular, independently of the notion of standard of living; finally, transition to an easier to use three-position indicator. This indicator has led to an initial study of individuals in a precarious situation. These individuals are more numerous among "blue collar workers" than among "white collar workers", even at equivalent income levels. They often had problems at the period when they were dependent on their parents. And they are less well equipped in durable goods, also at equivalent income levels. [spa] Elaboración de un indicador de escasez : las etapas en un trámite empírico - En el análisis de la pobreza se presta una atención creciente a la escasez. El estadístico sociólogo intentó, por lo tanto, captar esta noción. Tuvo entonces que superar dos dificultades. Por un lado, la noción aparecía imprecisa. Por el otro, la encuesta « Situations défavorisées » (Posiciones desfavorecidas) era la única de la cual podía aprovechar los resultados; ahora bien, la elaboración del cuestionario no constaba de previa reflexion acerca de escasez. A pesar de esas dificultades, se pudo elaborar un indicador, objeto de un trámite empírico de varias etapas : identificación de las preguntas de la encuesta referente, a priori, a la noción de escasez; examen de su grado de asociación mútua; elaboración de un primer indicador de seis posiciones; verificación de la aptitud de este indicador a tener un sentido, especialmente a parte de la noción de nivel de vida; finalmente, el pasar a un indicador de tres posiciones de mejor utilización. Este indicador facilitó a continuación un primer estudio acerca de los individuos de posición precaria. Son más numerosos entre los « cuellos azules » que entre los « cuellos blancos », incluso con semejante ingreso. A menudo tropezaron con problemas mientras dependían de sus padres. Su equipo, respecto a bienes de duración, es más escaso.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/estat.1984.4887
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Economie et statistique.

    Volume (Year): 168 (1984)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 93-105

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    Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_1984_num_168_1_4887

    Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.1984.4887
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    Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/estat

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    Cited by:
    1. Paul Ningaye & Yemedjeu Tiomela & Virginie Takoutio Feudjio, 2011. "Multi-Poverty in Cameroon: a Dimensional Scores Approach. Multi-pauvreté au Cameroun: Approche par les scores dimensionnels," Working Papers PMMA 2011-01, PEP-PMMA.

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