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Bank Efficiency and Non-Performing Loans: Evidence from Malaysia and Singapore

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Author Info

  • Mohd Zaini Abd Karim
  • Sok-Gee Chan
  • Sallahudin Hassan

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between non-performing loans and bank efficiency in Malaysia and Singapore. To achieve the objective, cost efficiency was estimated using the stochastic cost frontier approach assuming normal-gamma efficiency distribution model proposed by Greene (1990). The cost efficiency scores were then used in the second stage Tobit simultaneous equation regression to determine the effect of non-performing loans on bank efficiency. The results indicate that there is no significant difference in cost efficiency between banks in Singapore and Malaysia although banks in Singapore exhibit a higher average cost efficiency score. The Tobit simultaneous equation regression results clearly indicate that higher non-performing loan reduces cost efficiency. Likewise, lower cost efficiency increases non-performing loans. The result also support the hypothesis of bad management proposed by Berger and DeYoung (1992) that poor management in the banking institutions results in bad quality loans, and therefore, escalates the level of non-performing loans.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by University of Economics, Prague in its journal Prague Economic Papers.

Volume (Year): 2010 (2010)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 118-132

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Handle: RePEc:prg:jnlpep:v:2010:y:2010:i:2:id:367:p:118-132

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Related research

Keywords: tobit regression; stochastic cost frontier; problem loans; bank efficiency;

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References

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  1. George E. Battese & Greg S. Corra, 1977. "Estimation Of A Production Frontier Model: With Application To The Pastoral Zone Of Eastern Australia," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 21(3), pages 169-179, December.
  2. Wheelock, David C & Wilson, Paul W, 1995. "Explaining Bank Failures: Deposit Insurance, Regulation, and Efficiency," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 77(4), pages 689-700, November.
  3. Altunbas, Yener & Liu, Ming-Hau & Molyneux, Philip & Seth, Rama, 2000. "Efficiency and risk in Japanese banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(10), pages 1605-1628, October.
  4. Aigner, Dennis & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Peter, 1977. "Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 21-37, July.
  5. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1990. "Measurement and efficiency issues in commercial banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 151, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  6. Greene, William H., 1980. "Maximum likelihood estimation of econometric frontier functions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 27-56, May.
  7. Mester, Loretta J., 1996. "A study of bank efficiency taking into account risk-preferences," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 1025-1045, July.
  8. Allen, Linda & Rai, Anoop, 1996. "Operational efficiency in banking: An international comparison," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 655-672, May.
  9. Kwan, Simon H. & Eisenbeis, Robert A., 1995. "An analysis of inefficiencies in banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 733-734, June.
  10. Berger, Allen N. & DeYoung, Robert, 1997. "Problem loans and cost efficiency in commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 849-870, June.
  11. Claudia Girardone & Philip Molyneux & Edward Gardener, 2004. "Analysing the determinants of bank efficiency: the case of Italian banks," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(3), pages 215-227.
  12. Bhattacharyya, Arunava & Lovell, C. A. K. & Sahay, Pankaj, 1997. "The impact of liberalization on the productive efficiency of Indian commercial banks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 332-345, April.
  13. Meeusen, Wim & van den Broeck, Julien, 1977. "Efficiency Estimation from Cobb-Douglas Production Functions with Composed Error," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 18(2), pages 435-44, June.
  14. Battese, George E. & Corra, Greg S., 1977. "Estimation Of A Production Frontier Model: With Application To The Pastoral Zone Of Eastern Australia," Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 21(03), December.
  15. Chaffai, Mohamed E., 1997. "Estimating input-specific technical inefficiency: The case of the Tunisian banking industry," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 314-331, April.
  16. Greene, William H., 1990. "A Gamma-distributed stochastic frontier model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1-2), pages 141-163.
  17. Christensen, Laurits R & Jorgenson, Dale W & Lau, Lawrence J, 1973. "Transcendental Logarithmic Production Frontiers," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 55(1), pages 28-45, February.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Bertha Elizabeth & Nanny Dewi & Aldrin Herwany, 2012. "The Analysis Of Factors That Influence Relative Efficiency Of General Banks After The Implementation Of Indonesia Banking Architecture," Working Papers in Business, Management and Finance 201201, Department of Management and Business, Padjadjaran University, revised Dec 2012.
  2. Alina Georgiana Manta & Roxana Maria Badîrcea, 2013. "Case – study Concerning the Effects of the Macroeconomic Variables on the Loan Portfolios Quality of the Romanian Banking Sector Using the VAR Model and Least Squares Method," Finante - provocarile viitorului (Finance - Challenges of the Future), University of Craiova, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, vol. 1(15), pages 96-103, December.
  3. Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz & Hasan, Syed Akif & Osman, Ms. Amber, 2012. "Co-Integration in Write Offs ratios of the world," MPRA Paper 45143, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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