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One Size Does Not Fit All Projects: Exploring Classical Contingency Domains


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  • Aaron J. Shenhar

    (Wesley J. Howe School of Technology Management, Stevens Institute of Technology, Castle Point on the Hudson, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030)

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    Not many authors have attempted to classify projects according to any specific scheme, and those who have tried rarely offered extensive empirical evidence. From a theoretical perspective, a traditional distinction between radical and incremental innovation has often been used in the literature of innovation, and has created the basis for many classical contingency studies. Similar concepts, however, did not become standard in the literature of projects, and it seems that theory development in project management is still in its early years. As a result, most project management literature still assumes that all projects are fundamentally similar and that "one size fits all." The purpose of this exploratory research is to show how different types of projects are managed in different ways, and to explore the domain of traditional contingency theory in the more modern world of projects. This two-step research is using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and two data sets to suggest a conceptual, two-dimensional construct model for the classification of technical projects and for the investigation of project contingencies. Within this framework, projects are classified into four levels of technological uncertainty, and into three levels of system complexity, according to a hierarchy of systems and subsystems. The study provides two types of implications. For project leadership it shows why and how management should adapt a more project-specific style. For theory development, it offers a collection of insights that seem relevant to the world of projects as temporary organizations, but are, at times, different from classical structural contingency theory paradigms in enduring organizations. While still exploratory in nature, this study attempts to suggest new inroads to the future study of modern project domains.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by INFORMS in its journal Management Science.

    Volume (Year): 47 (2001)
    Issue (Month): 3 (March)
    Pages: 394-414

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    Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:47:y:2001:i:3:p:394-414

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    Keywords: Project Management; Contingency Theory; Project Types; Project Classification; Technological Uncertainty; System Complexity;


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    Cited by:
    1. Reid, Gavin C & Xu, Zhibin, 2009. "Entrepreneurial Orientation, Intangible Assets and Firm Growth: the impact of ‘Spirit and Material’ on the growth of Chinese private firms," SIRE Discussion Papers 2009-32, Scottish Institute for Research in Economics (SIRE).
    2. Gavin C Reid & Julia Smith & Zhibin Xu, . "Extending Contingency: the impact of strategy, technology, size and business environment on the organisational form of small Chinese firms," CRIEFF Discussion Papers 1205, Centre for Research into Industry, Enterprise, Finance and the Firm.
    3. Pascal Le Masson & Sylvain Lenfle & Benoît Weil, 2013. "Testing whether major innovation capabilities are systemic design capabilities: analyzing rule-renewal design capabilities in a case-control study of historical new business developments," Post-Print hal-00881700, HAL.
    4. Galeazzo, Ambra & Furlan, Andrea & Vinelli, Andrea, 2014. "Understanding environmental-operations integration: The case of pollution prevention projects," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 153(C), pages 149-160.
    5. Gil, Nuno & Tether, Bruce S., 2011. "Project risk management and design flexibility: Analysing a case and conditions of complementarity," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 415-428, April.
    6. Chang, Dae Ryun & Cho, Hang, 2008. "Organizational memory influences new product success," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 13-23, January.
    7. Sylvain Lenfle, 2008. "Exploration and Project Management," Post-Print hal-00404168, HAL.
    8. Nemet, Gregory F. & Johnson, Evan, 2012. "Do important inventions benefit from knowledge originating in other technological domains?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 190-200.
    9. repec:rdg:wpaper:em-dp2008-57 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Engwall, Mats, 2003. "No project is an island: linking projects to history and context," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 789-808, May.


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