The Effects of Free Sample Promotions on Incremental Brand Sales
AbstractThe authors present a model of free sample effects and evidence from two field experiments on free samples. The model incorporates three potential effects of free samples on sales: (1) an acceleration effect, whereby consumers begin repeat purchasing of the sampled brand earlier than they otherwise would; (2) a cannibalization effect, which reduces the number of paid trial purchases of the brand; and (3) an expansion effect, which induces purchasing by consumers who would not consider buying the brand without a free sample. The empirical findings suggest that, unlike other consumer promotions such as coupons, free samples can produce measurable long-term effects on sales that can be observed as much as 12 months after the promotion. The data also show that the effectiveness of free sample promotions can vary widely, even between brands in the same product category. Application of the model to the data from the two experiments reveals that the magnitude of acceleration, cannibalization, and expansion effects varies substantially across the two free sample promotions. These and other findings suggest that the model can be a useful tool for obtaining insights into the nature of free sample promotions.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by INFORMS in its journal Marketing Science.
Volume (Year): 23 (2004)
Issue (Month): 3 (November)
free samples; samples; promotions; field experiments; incremental volume; coupons; incremental sales; sampling programs; consumer products; panel data; repeat purchasing; long-term effects;
You can help add them by filling out this form.
CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
- Monic Jiayin Sun, 2006. "When Should Firms Offer Free Trials?," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series WP2006-062, Boston University - Department of Economics.
- Saak, Alexander E., 2011.
"Dynamic informative advertising of new experience goods:,"
IFPRI discussion papers
1062, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Alexander E. Saak, 2012. "Dynamic Informative Advertising of New Experience Goods," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(1), pages 104-135, 03.
- Saak, Alexander E., 2010. "Dynamic Informative Advertising of New Experience Goods," 2010 Annual Meeting, July 25-27, 2010, Denver, Colorado 61326, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
- Saak, Alexander E., 2011. "Dynamic Informative Advertising of New Experience Goods," 2011 Annual Meeting, July 24-26, 2011, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 103536, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
- Daniel Halbheer & Florian Stahl & Oded Koenigsberg & Donald R. Lehmann, 2013. "Digital Content Strategies," Working Papers 329, University of Zurich, Department of Business Administration (IBW).
- Yifan Dou & Marius Florin Niculescu & Dongjun Wu, 2011. "Optimal Consumer Network Structure Formation under Network Effects: Seeds Controllability and Visibility," Working Papers 11-07, NET Institute, revised Oct 2011.
- Lee, Michael S.W. & Motion, Judith & Conroy, Denise, 2009. "Anti-consumption and brand avoidance," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 169-180, February.
- Luís Cabral, 2012. "Lock in and switch: Asymmetric information and new product diffusion," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 375-392, September.
- Kissan Joseph & Murali Mantrala, 2009. "A model of the role of free drug samples in physicians’ prescription decisions," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 20(1), pages 15-29, March.
- Ting Liu & Monic Jiayin Sun, 2007. "Informal Payments in Developing Countries' Public Health Sectors¤," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series WP2007-032, Boston University - Department of Economics.
- Abhishek & Koshy, Abraham, . "Quality Perceptions of Private Label Brands: Conceptual Framework and Agenda for Research," IIMA Working Papers WP2008-02-04, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Research and Publication Department.
- Mihal Stoyanov, 2010. "Modern concept on the consumer choice as a rational behavior, encouraged by means of sales promotion techniques," Economic Thought journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 1, pages 101-116.
- Abraham Koshy & . Abhishek, 2010. "Quality Perceptions of Private Label Brands Conceptual Framework and Agenda for Research," Working Papers id:2756, eSocialSciences.
- K. Sudhir & Nathan Yang, 2014. "Exploiting the Choice-Consumption Mismatch: A New Approach to Disentangle State Dependence and Heterogeneity," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1941, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mirko Janc).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.