The Impact of Reference Price Effects on the Profitability of Price Promotions
AbstractThis paper investigates the impact of reference price effects on retailer price promotions and describes why these effects can make promoting profitable. First, we analyze the profit impact of reference price effects generated by a single period of promotion. The promotion can increase profit if the gain that these effects create in the promotion period outweighs the loss they create in future periods. We then describe how retailers can estimate the optimal strategy of recurring promotions that maximizes profits from reference price effects over a time horizon. Examples of such strategies are presented for a retailer selling a national brand of peanut butter. We obtain insights into how promotion prices, timing, and profits are affected by changes in costs, interest rates, consumers' reactions to reference price effects, and error in estimates used in the model. The retailer's optimal reaction to a trade deal is also examined. This strategy involves a phase of increased promotion activity sandwiched between phases of decreased activity. We explain these results using the effects described in the single-period model.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by INFORMS in its journal Marketing Science.
Volume (Year): 14 (1995)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
buyer behavior; pricing research; promotion; retailing and wholesaling;
You can help add them by filling out this form.
CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
- Teck H. Ho & Noah Lim & Colin Camerer, 2005. "Modeling the Psychology of Consumer and Firm Behavior with Behavioral Economics," Levine's Bibliography 784828000000000476, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Ahrens, Steffen & Pirschel, Inske & Snower, Dennis J., 2014.
"A Theory of Price Adjustment under Loss Aversion,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
9964, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Steffen Ahrens & Inske Pirschel & Dennis Snower, 2014. "A Theory of Price Adjustment under Loss Aversion," CESifo Working Paper Series 4789, CESifo Group Munich.
- Steffen Ahrens & Inske Pirschel & Dennis Snower, 2014. "A Theory of Price Adjustment under Loss Aversion," Kiel Working Papers 1915, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Ahrens, Steffen & Pirschel, Inske & Snower, Dennis J., 2014. "A theory of price adjustment under loss aversion," Economics Working Papers 2014-05, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
- Ahrens, Steffen & Pirschel, Inske & Snower, Dennis J., 2014. "A Theory of Price Adjustment under Loss Aversion," IZA Discussion Papers 8138, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Pirschel, Inske & Ahrens, Steffen & Snower, Dennis, 2013. "A Theory of Price Adjustment under Loss Aversion," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79793, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
- Robert Slonim & Ellen Garbarino, 2009. "Similarities and differences between stockpiling and reference effects," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(6), pages 351-371.
- Srinivasan, S. & Pauwels, K.H. & Hanssens, D.M. & Dekimpe, M.G., 2002. "Do Promotions Benefit Manufacturers, Retailers or Both?," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2002-21-MKT, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
- Zhang, Juan & Gou, Qinglong & Liang, Liang & Huang, Zhimin, 2013. "Supply chain coordination through cooperative advertising with reference price effect," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 345-353.
- Arieh Gavious & Oded Lowengart, 2012. "Price–quality relationship in the presence of asymmetric dynamic reference quality effects," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 137-161, March.
- Reiner, Gerald & Fichtinger, Johannes, 2009. "Demand forecasting for supply processes in consideration of pricing and market information," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(1), pages 55-62, March.
- Georg Müller & Sourav Ray, 2007. "Asymmetric price adjustment: evidence from weekly product-level scanner price data," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(7), pages 723-736.
- Chakravarthi Narasimhan & Chuan He & Eric Anderson & Lyle Brenner & Preyas Desai & Dmitri Kuksov & Paul Messinger & Sridhar Moorthy & Joseph Nunes & Yuval Rottenstreich & Richard Staelin & George Wu &, 2005. "Incorporating Behavioral Anomalies in Strategic Models," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 361-373, December.
- Kathryn Graddy & Lara Loewenstein & Jianping Mei & Mike Moses & Rachel Pownall, 2014. "Anchoring or Loss Aversion? Empirical Evidence from Art Auctions," Working Papers 73, Brandeis University, Department of Economics and International Businesss School.
- Zhang, Jie & Kevin Chiang, Wei–yu & Liang, Liang, 2014. "Strategic pricing with reference effects in a competitive supply chain," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 126-135.
- Martín-Herrán, Guiomar & Taboubi, Sihem & Zaccour, Georges, 2012. "Dual role of price and myopia in a marketing channel," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 219(2), pages 284-295.
- Alfred Taudes & Christian Rudloff, 2012. "Integrating inventory control and a price change in the presence of reference price effects: a two-period model," Computational Statistics, Springer, vol. 75(1), pages 29-65, February.
- Gadi Fibich & Arieh Gavious & Oded Lowengart, 2007. "Optimal price promotion in the presence of asymmetric reference-price effects," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(6), pages 569-577.
- Fleischmann, M. & Hall, J.M. & Pyke, D.F., 2005. "A Dynamic Pricing Model for Coordinated Sales and Operations," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2005-074-LIS, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mirko Janc).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.