A two-pass model study of the CAPM: evidence from the UK stock market
AbstractPurpose – There has been considerable debate on the linear relationship between systematic risk and return. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether security return can be explained by systematic risk. Design/methodology/approach – This study employs the market model to test the effect of excess return on portfolio returns. The paper divides total risk into systematic and idiosyncratic risk to examine whether the degree of inefficient portfolio diversification impairs the applicability of the capital asset pricing model (CAPM). In the two-pass cross-sectional regressions, the paper assesses whether excess return on a security is directly proportional to the security's beta. The paper also incorporates the total variance of securities and the squared value of beta to capture idiosyncratic risk and the nonlinear risk-return relationship. Findings – The CAPM is rejected due to positive intercepts in most portfolios and there are large proportions of idiosyncratic risk in these portfolios. Two-pass regressions show that the security market line theory is valid when additional variables are included in the equation. However, survivorship bias appears to be present in the selected sample. Practical implications – Since large excess returns are present in the models, the traditional CAPM is rejected and incomplete portfolio diversification can be explained by high levels of idiosyncratic risk. Originality/value – The authors find that inefficient portfolio diversification is due to the level of idiosyncratic risk in a portfolio. Evidence of the nonlinear beta-return relationship suggests that the traditional CAPM is misspecified.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Emerald Group Publishing in its journal Studies in Economics and Finance.
Volume (Year): 29 (2012)
Issue (Month): 2 (June)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.emeraldinsight.com
Postal: Emerald Group Publishing, Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley, BD16 1WA, UK
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Merton, Robert C., 1987.
"A simple model of capital market equilibrium with incomplete information,"
1869-87., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Merton, Robert C, 1987. " A Simple Model of Capital Market Equilibrium with Incomplete Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(3), pages 483-510, July.
- Fletcher, Jonathan, 2001. "An examination of predictable risk and return in UK stock returns," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 53(6), pages 527-546.
- John L. Evans & Stephen H. Archer, 1968. "Diversification And The Reduction Of Dispersion: An Empirical Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 23(5), pages 761-767, December.
- Banz, Rolf W., 1981. "The relationship between return and market value of common stocks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 3-18, March.
- Smith, Daniel R., 2007. "Conditional coskewness and asset pricing," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 91-119, January.
- S. Spyrou & K. Kassimatis, 2009. "Time-variation in the value premium and the CAPM: evidence from European markets," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(23), pages 1899-1914.
- Turan G. Bali & Nusret Cakici & Xuemin (Sterling) Yan & Zhe Zhang, 2005. "Does Idiosyncratic Risk Really Matter?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(2), pages 905-929, 04.
- Andrew Clare, Richard Priestley & Steven Thomas, .
"Reports of beta's death are premature: evidence from the UK,"
CERF Discussion Paper Series
96-05, Economics and Finance Section, School of Social Sciences, Brunel University.
- Clare, A. D. & Priestley, R. & Thomas, S. H., 1998. "Reports of beta's death are premature: Evidence from the UK," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1207-1229, September.
- Carhart, Mark M, 1997. " On Persistence in Mutual Fund Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 57-82, March.
- Bernard Bollen & Anthony Skotnicki & Madhu Veeraraghavan, 2009. "Idiosyncratic volatility and security returns: Australian evidence," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(19), pages 1573-1579.
- David Morelli, 2003. "Capital asset pricing model on UK securities using ARCH," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(3), pages 211-223.
- Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1992. " The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(2), pages 427-65, June.
- Dale L. Domian & David A. Louton & Marie D. Racine, 2007. "Diversification in Portfolios of Individual Stocks: 100 Stocks Are Not Enough," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 42(4), pages 557-570, November.
- Fletcher, Jonathan, 1997. "An examination of the cross-sectional relationship of beta and return: UK evidence," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 211-221.
- Campbell R. Harvey & Akhtar Siddique, 2000. "Conditional Skewness in Asset Pricing Tests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(3), pages 1263-1295, 06.
- Fletcher, Jonathan & Kihanda, Joseph, 2005. "An examination of alternative CAPM-based models in UK stock returns," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(12), pages 2995-3014, December.
- Panayiotis Theodossiou, 1998. "Financial Data and the Skewed Generalized T Distribution," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(12-Part-1), pages 1650-1661, December.
- Blume, Marshall E & Friend, Irwin, 1973. "A New Look at the Capital Asset Pricing Model," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 28(1), pages 19-33, March.
- Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
- Black, Fischer, 1972. "Capital Market Equilibrium with Restricted Borrowing," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(3), pages 444-55, July.
- William F. Sharpe, 1964. "Capital Asset Prices: A Theory Of Market Equilibrium Under Conditions Of Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 19(3), pages 425-442, 09.
- Simkowitz, Michael A. & Beedles, William L., 1978. "Diversification in a Three-Moment World," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(05), pages 927-941, December.
- Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1996. " Multifactor Explanations of Asset Pricing Anomalies," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 55-84, March.
- Andrew Chan & Alice P.L. Chui, 1996. "An Empirical Re-Examination of the Cross-Section of Expected Returns: UK Evidence," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(9-10), pages 1435-1452, December.
- Clare, Andrew, et al, 1998. "Macroeconomic Shocks and the CAPM: Evidence from the UK Stockmarket," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 3(2), pages 111-26, April.
- Angelidis, Timotheos & Tessaromatis, Nikolaos, 2008. "Idiosyncratic volatility and equity returns: UK evidence," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 539-556, June.
- Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-36, May-June.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Louise Lister).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.