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Do the unemployed become successful entrepreneurs?

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Author Info

  • Pernilla Andersson
  • Eskil Wadensjö

Abstract

Purpose – Many unemployed people become self-employed. Self-employment, however, does not necessarily lead to success. The main objective of the paper is to compare the economic outcome and success as self-employed between those who entered self-employment from paid employment, unemployment and inactivity. The question is if individuals who enter self-employment from a weak position on the labour market are equally successful as those who enter self-employment from a stronger position. Design/methodology/approach – Micro-econometric methods are used to estimate first the propensity to become self-employed in the period 1998-2002 among Swedish-born men aged 20-60 years who were unemployed, inactive or wage earners in 1998, and second, the economic outcome of self-employment. Economic outcome in 2002 is measured using income from self-employment and having employees in the firm. Findings – The study finds that the unemployed, and even more the inactive, are overrepresented among those who become self-employed. Those who were wage earners in 1998 have higher incomes and are also employing other people in their business to a much higher extent in 2002 than those who were unemployed or inactive in 1998. Practical implications – The results indicate that support for unemployed to become self-employed should be implemented with great care. The economic outcome of self-employment is inadequate for many who were unemployed earlier. Originality/value – The study will be valuable for those who are interested in those who become self-employed and in the economic outcome of self-employment for different groups.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Emerald Group Publishing in its journal International Journal of Manpower.

Volume (Year): 28 (2007)
Issue (Month): 7 (November)
Pages: 604-626

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Handle: RePEc:eme:ijmpps:v:28:y:2007:i:7:p:604-626

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Web page: http://www.emeraldinsight.com

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Postal: Emerald Group Publishing, Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley, BD16 1WA, UK
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Related research

Keywords: Income; Self-employment; Sweden; Unemployment;

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Román, Concepción & Congregado, Emilio & Millán, José María, 2013. "Start-up incentives: Entrepreneurship policy or active labour market programme?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 151-175.
  2. José María Millán & Emilio Congregado & Concepción Román, 2010. "Determinants of Self-Employment Dynamics and their Implications on Entrepreneurial Policy Effectiveness," Lecturas de Economía, Universidad de Antioquia, Departamento de Economía, issue 72, pages 45-76.
  3. Lööf, Hans & Nabavi, Pardis, 2013. "Survival, Productivity and Growth of New Ventures across Locations," Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation 308, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
  4. Lina Andersson, 2011. "Occupational choice and returns to self-employment among immigrants," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(8), pages 900-922, November.
  5. Marco Vivarelli, 2012. "Entrepreneurship and Post-Entry Performance: the Microeconomic Evidence," DISCE - Quaderni del Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali dises1286, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).
  6. Vivarelli, Marco, 2012. "Drivers of entrepreneurship and post-entry performance : microeconomic evidence from advanced and developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6245, The World Bank.
  7. Marco Caliendo & Alexander Kritikos, 2010. "Start-ups by the unemployed: characteristics, survival and direct employment effects," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 71-92, July.
  8. Quatraro, Francesco & Vivarelli, Marco, 2013. "Drivers of Entrepreneurship and Post-Entry Performance of Newborn Firms in Developing Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 7436, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Andersson Joona, Pernilla & Wadensjö, Eskil, 2008. "A Gender Perspective on Self-Employment Entry and Performance as Self-Employed," IZA Discussion Papers 3581, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Oberschachtsiek, Dirk, 2010. "How do local labor market conditions and individual characteristics affect quitting selfemployment?," Discussion Papers, Presidential Department P 2010-001, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
  11. Millán, José María & Congregado, Emilio & Román, Concepción, 2014. "Persistence in entrepreneurship and its implications for the European entrepreneurial promotion policy," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 83-106.
  12. Åstebro, Thomas & Chen, Jing, 2014. "The entrepreneurial earnings puzzle: Mismeasurement or real?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 88-105.
  13. Vera Rocha & Anabela Carneiro & Celeste Amorim Varum, 2013. "Entrepreneurship Dynamics: Entry Routes, Business-Owner's Persistence and Exit Modes," CEF.UP Working Papers 1310, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
  14. José Millán & Emilio Congregado & Concepción Román, 2012. "Determinants of self-employment survival in Europe," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(2), pages 231-258, February.
  15. Santarelli, Enrico & Vivarelli, Marco, 2006. "Entrepreneurship and the Process of Firms’ Entry, Survival and Growth," IZA Discussion Papers 2475, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  16. Rui Baptista & Murat Karaoez & Joana Mendonca, 2007. "Entrepreneurial Backgrounds, Human Capital and Start-up Success," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-045, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  17. Vivarelli, Marco, 2012. "Entrepreneurship in Advanced and Developing Countries: A Microeconomic Perspective," IZA Discussion Papers 6513, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  18. Frijters, Paul & Kong, Tao & Meng, Xin, 2011. "Migrant Entrepreneurs and Credit Constraints under Labour Market Discrimination," IZA Discussion Papers 5967, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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