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The Economics of Smallholder Organic Contract Farming in Tropical Africa

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  • Bolwig, Simon
  • Gibbon, Peter
  • Jones, Sam
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    Abstract

    Summary The paper examines the revenue effects of certified organic contract farming for smallholders and of adoption of organic agricultural farming methods in a tropical African context. The comparison in both cases is with farming systems that are "organic by default." Survey data from a large organic coffee contract farming scheme in Uganda are reported and analyzed using a standard OLS regression and a full information maximum likelihood (FIML) estimate of the Heckman selection model. The analysis finds that, controlling for a range of factors, there are positive revenue effects both from participation in the scheme and, more modestly, from applying organic farming techniques.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal World Development.

    Volume (Year): 37 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 6 (June)
    Pages: 1094-1104

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:37:y:2009:i:6:p:1094-1104

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev

    Related research

    Keywords: organic farming contract farming profitability coffee Africa Uganda;

    References

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    1. Andrew Dorward & Shenggen Fan & Jonathan Kydd & Hans Lofgren & Jamie Morrison & Colin Poulton & Neetha Rao & Laurence Smith & Hardwick Tchale & Sukhadeo Thorat & Ian Urey & Peter Wobst, 2004. "Institutions and Policies for Pro-poor Agricultural Growth," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 22(6), pages 611-622, November.
    2. Warning, Matthew & Key, Nigel, 2002. "The Social Performance and Distributional Consequences of Contract Farming: An Equilibrium Analysis of the Arachide de Bouche Program in Senegal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 255-263, February.
    3. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
    4. Heckman, James J. & Lalonde, Robert J. & Smith, Jeffrey A., 1999. "The economics and econometrics of active labor market programs," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 31, pages 1865-2097 Elsevier.
    5. Bacon, Christopher, 2005. "Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 497-511, March.
    6. Ravallion, Martin, 2005. "Evaluating anti-poverty programs," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3625, The World Bank.
    7. Richard Blundell & Mónica Costa Dias, 2008. "Alternative Approaches to Evaluation in Empirical Microeconomics," CEF.UP Working Papers 0805, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    8. Dorward, Andrew & Fan, Shenggen & Kydd, Jonathan & Lofgren, Hans & Morrison, Jamie & Poulton, Colin & Rao, Neetha & Smith, Laurence & Tchale, Hardwick & Thorat, Sukhadeo & Urey, Ian & Wobst, Peter, 2004. "Institutions and economic policies for pro-poor agricultural growth," DSGD discussion papers 15, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    9. Puhani, Patrick A, 2000. " The Heckman Correction for Sample Selection and Its Critique," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(1), pages 53-68, February.
    10. Richard Blundell & Monica Costa Dias, 2000. "Evaluation methods for non-experimental data," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 21(4), pages 427-468, January.
    11. Vella, Francis & Verbeek, Marno, 1999. "Estimating and Interpreting Models with Endogenous Treatment Effects," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 17(4), pages 473-78, October.
    12. Poulton, Colin & Gibbon, Peter & Hanyani-Mlambo, Benjamine & Kydd, Jonathan & Maro, Wilbald & Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted & Osorio, Afonso & Tschirley, David & Zulu, Ballard, 2004. "Competition and Coordination in Liberalized African Cotton Market Systems," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 519-536, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Takahashi, Ryo & Todo, Yasuyuki, 2013. "Impact of a Shade Coffee Certification Program on Forest Conservation:A Case Study from a Wild Coffee Forest in Ethiopia," Working Papers 55, JICA Research Institute.
    2. Barham, Bradford L. & Weber, Jeremy G., 2012. "The Economic Sustainability of Certified Coffee: Recent Evidence from Mexico and Peru," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1269-1279.
    3. Blackman, Allen & Rivera, Jorge, 2010. "The Evidence Base for Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts of “Sustainable” Certification," Discussion Papers dp-10-17, Resources For the Future.
    4. Wollni, Meike & Andersson, Camilla, 2014. "Spatial patterns of organic agriculture adoption: Evidence from Honduras," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 120-128.
    5. Rao, Elizaphan J.O. & Qaim, Matin, 2010. "Supermarkets, farm household income and poverty: Insights from Kenya," 2010 AAAE Third Conference/AEASA 48th Conference, September 19-23, 2010, Cape Town, South Africa 95771, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) & Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA).
    6. Ito, Junichi & Bao, Zongshun & Su, Qun, 2012. "Distributional effects of agricultural cooperatives in China: Exclusion of smallholders and potential gains on participation," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 700-709.
    7. Julien Blanc & Paul Kledal, 2012. "The Brazilian organic food sector: Prospects and constraints of facilitating the inclusion of smallholders," Post-Print hal-00768458, HAL.
    8. Rao, Elizaphan J.O. & Qaim, Matin, 2011. "Supermarkets, Farm Household Income, and Poverty: Insights from Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 784-796, May.
    9. Henrik Hansen & Neda Trifković, 2013. "Food Standards are Good – for Middle-Class Farmers," IFRO Working Paper 2013/19, University of Copenhagen, Department of Food and Resource Economics.
    10. Oelofse, Myles & Høgh-Jensen, Henning & Abreu, Lucimar S. & Almeida, Gustavo F. & Hui, Qiao Yu & Sultan, Tursinbek & de Neergaard, Andreas, 2010. "Certified organic agriculture in China and Brazil: Market accessibility and outcomes following adoption," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(9), pages 1785-1793, July.
    11. Kleemann, Linda & Abdulai, Awudu, 2013. "Organic certification, agro-ecological practices and return on investment: Evidence from pineapple producers in Ghana," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 330-341.
    12. Freguin-Gresh, Sandrine & Anseeuw, Ward & D'Haese, Marijke F.C., 2012. "Demythifying Contract Farming: Evidence from Rural South Africa," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126567, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    13. Linda Kleemann & Awudu Abdulai, 2012. "Organic Certification, Agro-Ecological Practices and Return on Investment: Farm Level Evidence from Ghana," Kiel Working Papers 1816, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
    14. Balineau, Gaëlle, 2013. "Disentangling the Effects of Fair Trade on the Quality of Malian Cotton," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 241-255.
    15. Wilson, Adam P. & Wilson, Norbert L., 2013. "The Economics of Quality in the Specialty Coffee Industry: Insights from the Cup of Excellence Auction Programs," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150721, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    16. Céline Guimas, 2012. "Effect of organic contract farming on labor demand. A study case in the Western Uganda," Post-Print dumas-00802135, HAL.
    17. Linda Kleemann, 2012. "Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security in Africa: An Overview," Kiel Working Papers 1812, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.

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