The importance of low control at work and home on depression and anxiety: do these effects vary by gender and social class?
AbstractIn this study we consider both a gender model, a model that focuses on the stress associated with social roles and conditions in the home environment, and a job model, which addresses the stressful characteristics of the work environment, to investigate patterns of women's and men's psychological morbidity across different social positions. Using data from the Whitehall II Study, a longitudinal study of British civil servants, we hypothesise that a lack of control in the home and work environments affects depression and anxiety differently for women and men and across three social class groups. Both women and men with low control either at work or at home had an increased risk of developing depression and anxiety. We did not find an interaction between low control at home and work. We did, however, find that the risks associated with low control either at home or work were not evenly distributed across different social positions, measured by employment grade. Women in the lowest or middle employment grades who also reported low control at work or home were at most risk for depression and anxiety. Men in the middle grade with low work control were at risk for depression while those in the lowest grade were at risk for anxiety. Men in the middle and highest grades, however, were at greatest risk for both outcomes if they reported low control at home. We conclude that, in addition to social roles and characteristics of the work environment, future investigations of gender inequalities in health incorporate variables associated with control at home and social position.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Social Science & Medicine.
Volume (Year): 54 (2002)
Issue (Month): 5 (March)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/315/description#description
You can help add them by filling out this form.
CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
- Christopher J. Boyce & Andrew J. Oswald, 2012.
"Do people become healthier after being promoted?,"
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(5), pages 580-596, 05.
- repec:hit:cisdps:575 is not listed on IDEAS
- Vani K. Borooah, 2007. "Health and Wealth in the North of Ireland: Is There a “Social Gradient” to Health Outcomes?," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 38(1), pages 85-105.
- Johnston, David W. & Lee, Wang-Sheng, 2012.
"Extra Status and Extra Stress: Are Promotions Good for Us?,"
IZA Discussion Papers
6675, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- David W. Johnston & Wang-Sheng Lee, 2013. "Extra Status and Extra Stress: Are Promotions Good for Us?," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 66(1), pages 32-54, January.
- Borooah, Vani, 2010. "Inequality in health outcomes in India: the role of caste and religion," MPRA Paper 19832, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Sen, Gita & Iyer, Aditi, 2012. "Who gains, who loses and how: Leveraging gender and class intersections to secure health entitlements," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 74(11), pages 1802-1811.
- Hill, Terrence D. & Needham, Belinda L., 2013. "Rethinking gender and mental health: A critical analysis of three propositions," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 83-91.
- Vani Borooah, 2006. "What Makes People Happy? Some Evidence from Northern Ireland," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 7(4), pages 427-465, November.
- Antonio Rodríguez & Sunny Collings & Ping Qin, 2008. "Socio-economic differences in suicide risk vary by sex : A population-based case-control study of 18-65 year olds in Denmark," Development Research Working Paper Series 05/2008, Institute for Advanced Development Studies.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.