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Information based trade, the PIN variable, and portfolio style differences: Evidence from Tokyo stock exchange firms

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  • Kubota, Keiichi
  • Takehara, Hitoshi
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    Abstract

    We investigate whether the variables related to information based trade proposed by Easley et al. [Easley, D., Kiefer, N.M., O'Hara, M., Paperman, J.B., 1996. Liquidity, information, and infrequently traded stocks. Journal of Finance 51, 1405-1436.] help explain the daily price discovery process in an electronically order-driven market of the Tokyo Stock Exchange using the microstructure tick data. We find strong evidence that the value firms show higher probability of bad news occurrences than the growth firms. We also find that the PIN is higher for smaller firms as is the case in the U.S. With the portfolio ranking tests and the Fama and MacBeth test we find that the alpha variable, which represents the information event occurrence rate, is systematically related to required returns, while the evidence related to the PIN is weaker. In the final Fama and MacBeth test, in which the PIN or alpha variable is used as an additional explanatory variable to the benchmark Fama and French three factor model, we find that the sign of the alpha variable supports our hypothesis that the arrival of new information reduces the risk of the stock, though not significantly. We also find that the higher PIN value increases the risk of the stock, at the same time it can marginally improve the explanatory power of the multifactor model. We conclude that the PIN variable cannot be a substitutable proxy variable for the book-to-market factor unlike in the U.S., and that it is strongly related to the size variable.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Pacific-Basin Finance Journal.

    Volume (Year): 17 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 3 (June)
    Pages: 319-337

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:pacfin:v:17:y:2009:i:3:p:319-337

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/pacfin

    Related research

    Keywords: Information based trade Market microstructure Asymmetric information;

    References

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    1. Kent Daniel, 2001. "Explaining the Cross-Section of Stock Returns in Japan: Factors or Characteristics?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 743-766, 04.
    2. Vega, Clara, 2006. "Stock price reaction to public and private information," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 103-133, October.
    3. Marios Panayides & Andreas Charitou, 2004. "The Role of the Market Maker in International Capital Markets: Challenges and Benefits of Implementation in Emerging Markets," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm443, Yale School of Management.
    4. David Easley & Soeren Hvidkjaer & Maureen O'Hara, 2002. "Is Information Risk a Determinant of Asset Returns?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(5), pages 2185-2221, October.
    5. Chan, K. C. & Chen, Nai-fu & Hsieh, David A., 1985. "An exploratory investigation of the firm size effect," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 451-471, September.
    6. Ravi Jagannathan & Keiichi Kubota & Hitoshi Takehara, 1997. "Relationship between labor-income risk and average return: empirical evidence from the Japanese stock market," Discussion Paper / Institute for Empirical Macroeconomics 117, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
    7. Maureen O'Hara, 2003. "Presidential Address: Liquidity and Price Discovery," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(4), pages 1335-1354, 08.
    8. Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-36, May-June.
    9. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
    10. Hellwig, Martin F., 1980. "On the aggregation of information in competitive markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 477-498, June.
    11. Chan, Louis K C & Hamao, Yasushi & Lakonishok, Josef, 1991. " Fundamentals and Stock Returns in Japan," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(5), pages 1739-64, December.
    12. David Easley & Maureen O'hara, 2004. "Information and the Cost of Capital," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(4), pages 1553-1583, 08.
    13. Easley, David, et al, 1996. " Liquidity, Information, and Infrequently Traded Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1405-36, September.
    14. Foucault, Thierry, 1998. "Order Flow Composition and Trading Costs in Dynamic Limit Order Markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 1817, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    15. Grossman, Sanford J & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1976. "Information and Competitive Price Systems," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 66(2), pages 246-53, May.
    16. Ronald L. Goettler & Christine A. Parlour & Uday Rajan, 2005. "Equilibrium in a Dynamic Limit Order Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(5), pages 2149-2192, October.
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    Cited by:
    1. Sakawa, Hideaki & Ubukata, Masato & Watanabel, Naoki, 2014. "Market liquidity and bank-dominated corporate governance: Evidence from Japan," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 1-11.

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