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NGOs in China: die Entwicklung des Dritten Sektors

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  • Brie, Maria
  • Pietzcker, Hagen
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    Abstract

    In China sind in den vergangen zwei Jahrzehnten geschätzt über 2 Millionen NGOs ent-standen, ohne die Sozial-, Gesundheits- und Umweltpolitik kaum noch umsetzbar wären. Auch internationale NGOs, die sich in China engagieren und mit chinesischen NGOs kooperieren haben diese Entwicklung unterstützt. Die besonderen Arbeitsbedingungen von NGOs sind durch eine ambivalente Haltung der Regierung geprägt: Einerseits wird die Arbeit von NGOs von der Regierung gefördert, weil sie gebraucht werden, um die sozialen, ökonomischen und ökologischen Folgen der Reformpolitik seit 1978 zu kom-pensieren. Andererseits sind die politischen und gesetzlichen Regelungen, denen NGOs unterworfen sind, derart restriktiv, dass die meisten NGOs illegal oder semilegal arbeiten müssen. Zudem sind viele Organisationen, die sich de jure als NGO bezeichnen, de facto ausgelagerte staatliche Behörden. In der vorliegenden Untersuchung werden die politischen und juristischen Rahmenbedingungen, denen chinesische und internationale NGOs unterworfen sind, im Kontext der internationalen NGO- und Dritte-Sektor-Theorie beschrieben. Im Anschluss werden die Besonderheiten des Dritten Sektors an Beispielen dargestellt. Damit soll eine Grundlage für weitergehende vertiefende Untersuchungen zum Thema geboten werden. -- During the past two decades, more than 2 million NGOs emerged in China. Especially for the current Chinese social, health, and ecologic policies, NGOs are nearly indispensable. International NGOs, working in cooperation with Chinese NGOs, have supported this development. The special conditions NGOs must adhere to are characterized by the ambivalent approach the government takes on NGOs: On the one hand, NGO work is supported because there is a need to compensate for the social, economic, and ecologi-cal consequences which have accompanied the politics of reform since 1978. On the other hand, the government poses high political and legislative restrictions on NGOs, so that an overwhelming number of them cannot be officially registered and, therefore, are forced to work in an illegal or semi-legal context. Many organizations register de jure as NGOs, but are de facto outsourced administrative bodies. This article gives a compre-hensive account of the prevailing political circumstances and legal provisions under which both Chinese and international NGOs act on the basis of the international NGO- and Third-Sector-Theory. The characteristics of the Chinese Third Sector are illustrated by examples. This article also offers a sound basis for further and more specific studies on the subject.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Innovation and Organization with number SP III 2004-110.

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    Date of creation: 2004
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbior:spiii2004110

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    Cited by:
    1. Löhr, Susanne (Ed.) & Trappel, René (Ed.), 2011. "Task Force: Nahrungsmittel in China - Food security- und Food safety-Problematik in China," Duisburger Arbeitspapiere Ostasienwissenschaften 89/2011, University of Duisburg-Essen, Institute of East Asian Studies IN-EAST.

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