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Institutionalisierte Kooperationen im Wandel: Verbundgruppen im deutschen Non-Food-Einzelhandel


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  • Blöcker, Antje
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    Verbundgruppen bilden als institutionalisierte Kooperationen den Kern des Mittelstandes im deutschen Einzelhandel bilden, denn in vielen Einzelhandelssegmenten sind kaum noch nichtkooperierende selbständige Einzelhändler zu finden. In Deutschland entstanden die Verbundgruppen als liberal-konservative Variante der Genossenschaftsbewegung bereits in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Verbundgruppen, in denen spezifische Einkaufskooperationen zwischen Konkurrenten im Einzelhandel organisiert werden, stehen für eine besondere Governanceform im Einzelhandel. Die Trägerbetriebe der Verbundgruppen, die Verbundzentralen, verhandeln für ihre selbständigen Einzelhandelsmitglieder mit Vertragslieferanten der Industrie und des Großhandels, wobei spezifische Mitglieder- und Einflusslogiken aufeinander treffen. Der Wandel dieser gewerblichen, privatwirtschaftlichen Gruppen weist im Zuge der Globalisierung besondere institutionelle Dynamiken auf, die im Zentrum des Papiers stehen. Für die Verbundgruppen des Einzelhandels, die Beschaffungsnachteile ihrer selbständigen Mitglieder gegenüber Großunternehmen des Handels (Großhandel, Warenhäuser, Filialisten) auszugleichen versuchen, stellt die Globalisierung der Beschaffung eine besondere Herausforderung dar. Nach dem Global-Value-Chain-Konzept werden globale Wertschöpfungsketten entweder von großen Produzenten (producer-driven-chains) oder großen Handelsunternehmen (buyer-driven-chains) koordiniert und gesteuert. Der Beitrag zeigt anhand der Professionalisierung und Verselbständigkeit der Verbundzentralen, der Segmentierung der Mitglieder und Diversifizierung des Handelsformates sowie an Warengeschäften und Direktimporten der Verbundzentralen, dass Verbundgruppen hinsichtlich der Beschaffung nicht nur Getriebene, sondern auch aktive Globalisierungstreiber sind. -- Institutionalized purchasing cooperatives form the core of medium-sized businesses in Germany, where hardly any independent, non-cooperating retailers can be found in the various retail segments. In Germany, purchasing cooperatives first arose as a liberal conservative variant of the co-op movement in the second half of the 19th century. Because they uphold the joint interests of their individual members, purchasing cooperatives represent a special form of retail governance in which specific joint procurements for retail competitors are managed. As the operational center of the purchasing cooperative, the headquarters office negotiates with contract suppliers in the industry and wholesale arena, where specific member rationale and strategies collide. While changing over the course of globalization, these private commercial groups have developed a unique institutional dynamics that will be the focus of this paper. The globalization of procurement poses special challenges for purchasing cooperatives, which aim to counterbalance the procurement disadvantage of the independent member versus large enterprises (wholesale, department stores, and franchise companies). According to the global value chain concept, global value chains are coordinated and controlled either by producers (producer-driven chains) or by retailers (buyer-driven chains). Purchasing cooperatives have hardly played a role in this conceptual model. By illustrating the increasing professionalism and independence of purchasing cooperatives, the segmentation of their members, the diversification of their business format as well as their commodity transactions and direct imports, this contribution will demonstrate that, with respect to procurement, purchasing groups are not only globalization-driven, but are also active drivers of globalization.

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    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Internationalization and Organization with number SP III 2005-203.

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    Date of creation: 2005
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbint:spiii2005203

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