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Von imperialer Inklusion zur nationalen Exklusion: Staatsbürgerschaft in Österreich-Ungarn 1867-1923


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  • von Hirschhausen, Ulrike
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    Der Beitrag untersucht die Entwicklung der Staatsbürgerschaft in Österreich-Ungarn von 1867 bis in die 20er Jahre des 20. Jahrhunderts. Zunächst wird nach der Neuformierung von Staatsbürgerschaft in Österreich wie in Ungarn nach dem Ausgleich von 1867 gefragt. Während sich im österreichischen Fall eine rechtliche Kontinuität mit der ersten Jahrhundertmitte beobachten ließ, lehnte sich das neue ungarische Staatsbürgerschaftsgesetz von 1878 formal an das deutsche Kaiserreich an, war inhaltlich aber noch inklusiver, um die nichtmagyarischen Bevölkerungsgruppen effektiver integrieren zu können. Die Auswertung von Einbürgerungsanträgen zeigte sodann, dass die österreichische Staatsbürgerschaft vor allem in der Verfassungswirklichkeit von erheblicher Integrationskraft war und den Zugang zum Staat weitestgehend unabhängig von Ethnizität, Konfession, Klasse oder Geschlecht gestaltete. Erst während und vor allem nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg wich die inklusive Praxis in Cisleithanien exklusiven Tendenzen, indem die Beamten der deutsch-österreichischen Republik den auslegbaren Begriff der „Rasse“ als Entscheidungskriterium für den Erwerb der Staatsbürgerschaft einführten. Im Vergleich zu Russland und dem Deutschen Kaiserreich, die beide im letzten Drittel des 19. Jahrhunderts vergleichbare Nationalisierungsagenden einführten und staatsbürgerliche Rechte zunehmend von Ethnizität und Konfession abhängig machten, blieb die Habsburgermonarchie vor 1918 solchen Tendenzen gegenüber immun und setzte die frühneuzeitliche Tradition ethnokonfessioneller Indifferenz durch das Verfassungsprinzip ethnokultureller Gleichberechtigung auch im modernen Empire fort. -- The paper examines the development of citizenship in the Habsburg Monarchy between 1867 and the 1920ies. At the outset, the paper describes the formation of citizenship laws in both Austria and Hungary after the Compromise of 1867. The Austrian citizenship law displays legal continuity with the laws of the first half of the 19th century. The new Hungarian citizenship law of 1878, on the other hand, follows, in terms of form, the laws in effect in Wilhelmine Germany. Its substance is much broader, providing additionally for integration of the many non-magyar population segments. Next, the paper discusses an evaluation of naturalization requests, which illustrates the Austrian citizenship's remarkable ability to integrate and to maintain citizenship independent from ethnicity, confession, class or gender. Only during, and mostly after World War I, did the inclusive practices of the Cisleithanian bureaucracy yield to the rather exclusive tendency of the new German-Austrian Republic, whose politicians introduced the vague term of “race” as criterion for naturalization. Finally, a comparison with Tsarist Russia and the Second German Empire, both of which, in the latter third of the 19th century, introduced similar agendas of nationalization increasingly linking citizenship to ethnic and religions identities, shows that the Habsburg Monarchy remained basically untouched by such tendencies and continued, throughout the modern imperial period, its early modern tradition of ethnic and religious indifference under the constitutionally guaranteed principle of “national equality.”

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    Paper provided by Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB) in its series Discussion Papers, Research Group Civil Society, Citizenship and Political Mobilization in Europe with number SP IV 2007-403.

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    Date of creation: 2007
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:wzbccm:spiv2007403

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    1. Réjean Couture & Stephen Evans & Jacques Locat, 2002. "Introduction," Natural Hazards, International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 26(1), pages 1-6, May.
    2. S. Illeris & G. Akehurst, 2002. "Introduction," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(1), pages 1-3, January.
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