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Wettbewerbspolitische Aspekte in der Entwicklung des modernen Privatrechts

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  • Mertens, Jens
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    Abstract

    Wirtschaftlicher Austausch kann sich nur entwickeln, wenn er hinreichend gegen opportunistisches Verhalten abgesichert ist. In der globalisierten Wirtschaft des 21. Jahrhunderts werden grenzüberschreitende Geschäfte meist nicht durch staatliche Gerichte, sondern durch 'Private Ordering' und unternehmensinterne Hierarchiestrukturen - mithin durch persönliche Abhängigkeitsbeziehungen - geschützt. Damit weisen globale Märkte enge Parallelen zu vorindustriellen Märkten auf, welche durch die Abhängigkeitsbeziehungen innerhalb der ständischen Gesellschaftsordnung stabilisiert wurden. Dieses Arbeitspapier geht daher der Frage nach, inwieweit die Verstaatlichung des Privatrechtssystems auf nationaler Ebene notwendige Bedingung für die Entstehung moderner Wettbewerbsmärkte war, indem dieses Privatrechtssystem individuellen Tauschverkehr losgelöst von persönlichen Abhängigkeiten ermöglichte. untermauert durch zeitgenössische Beiträge wird herausgearbeitet, dass bereits im 19. Jahrhundert die konstitutive Bedeutung staatlicher Privatrechtsinstitutionen für wettbewerbliche Marktstrukturen zumindest unterschwellig erkannt und artikuliert wurde. Das Arbeitspapier legt damit eine Grundlage für die aktuell relevante Problematik, inwieweit Machtungleichgewichte und konzentrierte Marktstrukturen in der globalisierten Wirtschaft des 21. Jahrhunderts zumindest auch durch die Defizite staatlichen Privatrechts auf internationaler Ebene bedingt sind. -- Economic exchange can only prosper when it is protected against opportunistic behavior. In the globalized economy of the 21st century, cross-border transactions are usually not protected by national courts but rather by 'private ordering' and intrafirm hierarchies - i.e. by personal dependencies. Thus, global markets show a strong parallel to pre-industrial markets which were stabilized by personal dependencies within the feudal society. This working paper scrutinizes how the codification and nationalization of private law was a necessary condition for the development of modern competitive market structures on a national level by enabling individuals to organize transactions with anonymous transaction partners. Supported by historic contributions to the codification discourse, this paper shows how the constitutive function of a state-based private law system was already articulated in the 19th century - although in a rudimentary sense only. This way the paper lays a foundation for the recent question if power imbalances and concentrated market structures in the globalized economy of the 21st century are - at least to a limited extent - a consequence of deficient state-based private law systems.

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    Paper provided by University of Bremen, Collaborative Research Center 597: Transformations of the State in its series TranState Working Papers with number 126.

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    Date of creation: 2010
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:sfb597:126

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