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Vom Nationalstaat zum Mitgliedstaat und wieder zurück? Modifikationen 'offener Staatlichkeit' durch das Lissabon-Urteil des Bundesverfassungsgerichts


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  • Franzius, Claudio
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    Europäisierungsprozesse werden vielfach als Bedrohung wahrgenommen. Weil das spezifisch 'europäische' am Transformationsprozess von Staatlichkeit nicht so richtig zu fassen ist, bleibt als Ausweg nur die Argumentation mit dem Staat. So auch im Lissabon-Urteil des Bundesverfassungsgerichts, das sich wie ein Lehrbuch zur allgemeinen Staatslehre liest. Zwar wird der Staat des Grundgesetzes erstmals ausdrücklich als europarechtsfreundlich ausgewiesen. Doch das Gericht öffnet den Staat nicht nur gegenüber den europäischen Herausforderungen und begreift ihn als Mitgliedstaat, sondern zieht der Preisgabe von Souveränität auch Grenzen und versteht ihn als Nationalstaat. Dagegen, dass Integration demokratisch verantwortet werden muss, lässt sich wenig sagen. Ob sich aber mit der neuen Identitätskontrolle unter der im Urteil überstrapazierten 'Ewigkeitsgarantie' des Art. 79 Abs. 3 GG ein verantwortungsvoller Umgang mit dem Europarecht einstellen wird, bleibt abzuwarten. Der Staat geht nicht in Europa auf, das ist die Botschaft des Gerichts. In der partikularistischen Perspektive scheint sich der zweite Senat vom Leitbild offener Staatlichkeit zu verabschieden. Dann sollte aber auch darauf verzichtet werden, Europa einfach vom Staat aus denken. -- Europeanization processes are often perceived as a threat. Because it is hard to grasp what is specifically European in the transformation process of the state, the only way out often seems to be to fall back on the state. The Lisbon ruling of the German Constitutional Court is a case in point, reading like a textbook on the general theory of state. To be sure, the State of the Grundgesetz is, for the first time, attested as being friendly towards European Law, and the Court opens the state towards the European challenges and describes it as a member state - but at the same time it imposes clear limits on the surrendering of sovereignty, perceiving it as a nation state. There is not much to be said against the notion that integration has to be democratically accountable. However, it remains to be seen whether the new identity control under the eternity clause of Art. 79 para 3 Grundgesetz will result in a more responsible approach to European law. The state will not be absorbed by Europe - that is the message relayed by the Federal Constitutional Court, which in the particularist perspective seems to say goodbye to the concept of open statehood. In this case, however, it should also abstain from thinking Europe simply in terms of the state.

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    Paper provided by University of Bremen, Collaborative Research Center 597: Transformations of the State in its series TranState Working Papers with number 124.

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    Date of creation: 2010
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    Handle: RePEc:zbw:sfb597:124

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