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Bank Financing for SMEs around the World: Drivers, Obstacles, Business Models, and Lending Practices

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Author Info

  • Beck, Thorsten

    (Tilburg University)

  • Demirguc-Kunt, Asli

    ()
    (The World Bank)

  • Soledad Martinez Peria, Maria

    ()
    (The World Bank)

Abstract

Using data from a survey of 91 banks in 45 countries, the authors characterize bank financing to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) around the world. They find that banks perceive the SME segment to be highly profitable, but perceive macroeconomic instability in developing countries and competition in developed countries as the main obstacles. To serve SMEs banks have set up dedicated departments and decentralized the sale of products to the branches. However, loan approval, risk management, and loan recovery functions remain centralized. Compared with large firms, banks are less exposed to small enterprises, charge them higher interest rates and fees, and experience more non-performing loans from lending to them. Although there are some differences in SMEs financing across government, private, and foreign-owned banks -- with the latter being more likely to engage in arms-length lending -- the most significant differences are found between banks in developed and developing countries. Banks in developing countries tend to be less exposed to SMEs, provide a lower share of investment loans, and charge higher fees and interest rates. Overall, the evidence suggests that the lending environment is more important than firm size or bank ownership type in shaping bank financing to SMEs.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 4785.

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Length: 43 pages
Date of creation: 01 Nov 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4785

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Related research

Keywords: Access to credit; access to finance; Access to information; Bank Consolidation; Bank Financing; bank involvement; bank lending; bank loans; Bank Policy; Banking Industry; Banking Practices;

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References

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  1. Beck, H.T.L. & Demirgüç-Kunt, A., 2006. "Small and medium-size enterprises: Access to finance as a growth constraints," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3125429, Tilburg University.
  2. Allen N. Berger & Anil K. Kashyap & Joseph M. Scalise, 1995. "The Transformation of the U.S. Banking Industry: What a Long, Strange Trips It's Been," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(2), pages 55-218.
  3. Simeon Djankov & Caralee McLiesh & Andrei Shleifer, 2005. "Private Credit in 129 Countries," NBER Working Papers 11078, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Beck, T.H.L. & Demirgüc-Kunt, A. & Maksimovic, V., 2008. "Financing patterns around the world: Are small firms different?," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3132806, Tilburg University.
  5. Schiffer, M. & Weder, B., 2001. "Firm Size and the Business Environment: Worldwide Survey Results," Papers 43, World Bank - International Finance Corporation.
  6. Beck, T.H.L. & Demirgüc-Kunt, A. & Laeven, L. & Maksimovic, V., 2006. "The determinants of financing obstacles," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-4295079, Tilburg University.
  7. Berger, Allen N. & Rosen, Richard J. & Udell, Gregory F., 2005. "Does Market Size Structure Affect Competition? The Case of Small Business Lending," CEI Working Paper Series 2005-8, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  8. Ayyagari, M. & Beck, T.H.L. & Demirgüç-Kunt, A., 2007. "Small and medium enterprises across the globe," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-4731699, Tilburg University.
  9. Berger, Allen N. & Udell, Gregory F., 2006. "A more complete conceptual framework for SME finance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(11), pages 2945-2966, November.
  10. Beck, T.H.L. & Demirgüç-Kunt, A. & Maksimovic, V., 2005. "Financial and legal constraints to firm growth: Does firm size matter?," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-3125505, Tilburg University.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. World Bank, 2010. "Scaling-Up SME Access to Financial Services," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12515, The World Bank.
  2. Michael Fuchs & Leonardo Iacovone & Thomas Jaeggi & Mark Napier & Roland Pearson & Giulia Pellegrini & Carolina Villegas Sanchez, 2011. "Financing Small and Medium Enterprises in the Republic of South Africa," World Bank Other Operational Studies 12687, The World Bank.
  3. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & María Pería, 2011. "Bank Financing for SMEs: Evidence Across Countries and Bank Ownership Types," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 35-54, April.
  4. Ardic, Oya Pinar & Mylenko, Nataliya & Saltane, Valentina, 2011. "Small and medium enterprises : a cross-country analysis with a new data set," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5538, The World Bank.
  5. Saadani, Youssef & Arvai, Zsofia & Rocha, Roberto, 2011. "A review of credit guarantee schemes in the Middle East and North Africa Region," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5612, The World Bank.

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