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Le réseau & l’innovation, illustration par microsoft (Network & innovation illustrated by microsoft)

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  • Rached Halloul

    ()
    (labrii, ULCO)

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    Abstract

    Malgré de nombreuses tentatives pour cerner le concept de réseau, la dimension économique de ce terme demeure sujette à controverse. Des visions parcellaires ont ainsi confiné les réseaux au cadre stricte des collaborations inter-firmes, alors que des visions holistes ont tenté d’y inclure un grand nombre de rapports économiques, voir même des relations socio-politiques. En nous limitant aux rapports ayant une influence directe sur le processus d’innovation, une tentative est faite pour mieux appréhender les conséquences du réseau sur les dynamiques concurrentielles, le développement et la diffusion technologique. Cet effet semble à première vue favorable ; mais en distinguant trois types de dynamiques concurrentielles : intra-réseaux, inter-réseaux, et extra-réseaux, il paraît plus controversé. L’examen du cas de « Microsoft », confirme qu’en présence d’une firme dominante, les réseaux se traduisent par la création de barrières à l’entrée qui restreignent la concurrence extra-réseaux et obligent les firmes à intégrer les réseaux en place ; ce qui risque à moyen terme d’accentuer le degré effectif de concentration et de bloquer l’émergence d’autres grappes d’innovation. Despite many attempts to define the concept of network, the economic approach of this term remain subject to controversy. Limited views have confined networks to interfirm collaborations, while holistic views have tried to include a wide range of economic, or even sociological, relations. By analysing the links that have a direct impact on the innovation process, an attempt is made to evaluate the network's impact on competitive dynamics, development, and diffusion of technologies. At a first glance, this impact seems positive, but by distinguishing three types of competitive dynamics : intra-networks, inter-networks and extra-networks, it appears to be more controversial. The analysis of the « Microsoft » case confirms that in presence of a dominant firm, the networks create entry-barriers that restrain extra-networks competition and force firms to join existing networks, which at mid term, may increase the effective degree of concentration and block the emergence of other innovation clusters.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Laboratoire de Recherche sur l'Industrie et l'Innovation. ULCO / Research Unit on Industry and Innovation in its series Working Papers with number 56.

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    Length: 20 pages
    Date of creation: Sep 2002
    Date of revision:
    Publication status: Published in Cahiers du Lab.RII, Séptembre 2002
    Handle: RePEc:rii:riidoc:56

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    Keywords: Réseau; innovation; Microsoft; /network; innovation; Microsoft;

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