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La coopération décentralisée française face au "Consensus Post-Washington". L'exemple de l'initiative ART du Programme des Nations Unies pour le Développement au Maroc

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  • Thomas Roca

    (GED, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

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    Abstract

    Depuis la fin des années 90 et la remise en cause des politiques néolibérales de développement, les institutions internationales ont davantage axé leurs stratégies sur le politique. Nous soutenons qu’un « Consensus Post-Washington » est entrain de s’ériger. L’alliance de la Réserve fédérale américaine, du Fonds Monétaire International et de la Banque Mondiale a vécu. De nouvelles forces apparaissent dans l’espace laissé vacant par la remise en cause de l’ajustement. Le Programme des Nations Unies pour le Développement, fort de sa crédibilité en matière de développement humain a su mettre l’accent sur la participation des populations tout en reprenant un des fondamentaux du Consensus précédent : la décentralisation. De nouvelles stratégies sont mises en place, s’appuyant sur une « nouvelle » forme d’aide au développement : la coopération décentralisée. Cette forme de coopération suscite un intérêt grandissant de la part des Nations Unies et de la Banque Mondiale. Elle souffre néanmoins de carences importantes, et n’a pas encore fourni les preuves de son efficacité. Le programmes Gouvernance et Développement Local du PNUD, s’attachent à maximiser l’impact de cette forme de coopération et l’intègre dans une stratégie plus globale visant, in fine, la localisation des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement. Mais certaines limites demeurent, sans condamner pour autant, ces nouvelles stratégies. L’heure de la rationalisation de la coopération décentralisée a sonné. Since the late 90’s and the contesting of neo-liberal development politics, the international institutions tried to Groupe more their strategies on “politics”. We suggest that a “Post-Washington Consensus” is emerging. The alliance of the Federal Reserve, the International Monetary Fund and the Bank World ebbed away. New forces appear in the vacant space left by the questioning of the adjustment. The United Nation Development Program, known for human development approach, succeeded in stressing participation strategies, while preserving decentralization, one fundamental of the preceding consensus. New strategies based on a “new” form of development aid, decentralized cooperation, have been implemented. This form of cooperation arouses a growing interest from the United Nations and the World Bank. It suffers, nevertheless, from important deficiencies, and did not provide yet, the evidence of its effectiveness. The program GOvernance and Local Development (GOLD) of the UNDP attempts to maximize the impact of this form of cooperation and integrates it, in a whole strategy aiming, in fine, the localization of the Millennium Development Goals. But some limit remains without condemning these new strategies. The hour of the rationalization of decentralized cooperation has sounded. (Full text in french)

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    Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 135.

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    Length: 30 pages
    Date of creation: Mar 2007
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    Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:135

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