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Commerce international et développement : règles et enjeux pour l'Afrique

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  • Nicolas Ponty

    (Administrateur de l'INSEE / Economiste principal au PNUD)

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    Abstract

    Les pays africains sont aujourd'hui engagés dans différentes négociations commerciales. Au niveau multilatéral, un cycle de négociations pour le commerce et le développement a été ouvert en 2001 à Doha. Parallèlement, les pays Afrique-Caraïbe-Pacifique (ACP) négocient avec l'Union européenne les Accords de Partenariat Économique (APE). Cette étude analyse les enjeux de ces négociations commerciales multilatérales et régionales pour les pays africains ainsi que leur cohérence. Les pays africains, déjà engagés dans des négociations multilatérales où ils peinent déjà à faire valoir leurs intérêts, ont a priori peu d'intérêt à négocier les APE car la grande majorité d'entre eux bénéficient déjà d'un accès préférentiel aux marchés européens en tant que PMA. La seule incitation pour les pays africains à s'engager véritablement dans les négociations des APE proviendrait d'une aide pour le commerce additionnelle. Les pays ACP et l'Union européenne pourraient également proposer une révision de l'article XXIV du GATT sur les accords commerciaux préférentiels, comme les y invite d'ailleurs la déclaration de Doha en son paragraphe 29, afin d'y intégrer la dimension traitement spécial et différencié. Enfin, la rationalisation du « bol de spaghetti » que constituent les différentes Communautés économiques régionales (CER) africaines constitue le troisième élément clé pour la réussite des négociations des APE. African countries are today committed in différent trade negotiations. A multilateral Round for trade and development has been launched in 2001 at Doha. Simultaneously, African, Carribean and Pacifie (ACP) countries negotiate with the European Union Économie Partnership Agreements (EPA). This study is about first the issues at stake in these multilateral and regional trade negotiations and secondly their mutual consistency. African countries, which struggle at the multilateral level to hold successfully their positions, have indeed few interests to achieve EPA negotiations because most of them benefit still from free access on European markets. Only an additional aid for trade would lead African countries to commit themselves strongly in EPAs. ACP countries and the European Union should also propose jointly a revision of the GATT XXIV Article about regional trade agreements, pursuant to the Doha ministerial declaration which has agreed in paragraph 29 to clarify provisions for regional trade agreements and take into account special and differential treatment. Finally, the third pillar for a successful negotiation of EPAs will rely on a rationalization of the African regional economic communities "spaghetti bocal". (Full text in french)

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV in its series Documents de travail with number 131.

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    Length: 70 pages
    Date of creation: Oct 2006
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    Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:131

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