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Firm Heterogeneity and Different Modes of Internationalization: Evidence from Japanese Firms


Author Info

  • Ryuhei Wakasugi

    (Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University)

  • Ayumu Tanaka

    (Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University)


This paper examines how differently productivity heterogeneity of firms sorts their export and foreign direct investment (FDI) between North and South as well as between single and multiple destinations. The empirical examinations based on 12,000 Japanese firm-level data present new findings; the rank of productivity differently sorts the internationalization modes between North (North America and Europe) and South (East Asia); the productivity of firms internationalizing in both North America and Europe is remarkably higher than that of firms internationalizing in either North America or Europe, regardless the modes of internationalization, export or FDI, even if the productivity of firms internationalizing in North America is similar to the productivity of firms in Europe. This paper confirms that the difference in wage rate or fixed costs causes different modes of internationalization from the standard theoretical prediction based on the Helpman-Melitz-Yeaple model.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research in its series KIER Working Papers with number 681.

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Length: 24pages
Date of creation: Sep 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:kyo:wpaper:681

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Related research

Keywords: productivity-cutoff; export; FDI; North; South; East Asia;

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Cited by:
  1. Joachim Wagner, 2011. "International Trade and Firm Performance: A Survey of Empirical Studies since 2006," Working Paper Series in Economics 210, University of L√ľneburg, Institute of Economics.


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