Utilization of Agriculture Residues and Livestock Waste in Uzbekistan
AbstractIn Uzbekistan, the integration of crops and livestock, and the use of manure as fertilizer, are traditional practices and is the basis of the farming systems, especially at smallholder level. Nowadays local farmers prefer to use traditional and low-cost technologies for recycling the livestock manure through: anaerobic biodigestion (biodigesters); aerobic biodigestion (composting) and by direct application as organic fertilizer. The livestock waste treatment technique, however, are still too simple and improving is going insignificant. The monitoring system of manure composition, or its allocation to the drop fields is not completely developed. Fuel wood in the arid zones of Uzbekistan is often scarce as a result of deforestation and range degradation, leading to the ever-increasing role of animals as providers of manure for fuel, in addition to means of transport. Phasing out of energy subsidies has also caused that livestock manure, is not returned to the land, but used for heating and cooking, because alternative energy sources are no longer available or affordable. A number of local initiatives on improving waste management procedures waste processing enterprise are implemented in different cities. Biomass has been also a traditional energy source for the production of biogas, and a promising direction of energy in the agrarian sector of Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan has a big potential of biomass energy in the amount of 0.3 million ton of oil equivalent. Energy generated from biomass may satisfy 15-19 % of energy needs of Uzbekistan. Such method of energy production will also resolve the environmental protection issues: use of methane gas considerably reduces CO2 emission into the atmosphere. Besides, the biological residue of the process will provide the country's agriculture with high quality fertilizers. Biogas installations have already been tested at a stock-breeding farm "Milk Agro" in Zangiota village of Tashkent region. Practical results are already achieved: the farm is using biogas for its electricity and heating needs, fertilizers were put on the farm's fields Uzbekistan has also a big potential for production of bioethanol from crop residues and wasted crops: rice straw, wheat straw and corn stover are the most favourable bioethanol feedstock. 15 improved lines tested by ICBA (International Centre for Biosaline Agriculture) in Uzbekistan showed perspectives of sorghum stover for bioethanol production.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Kyoto University, Institute of Economic Research in its series KIER Working Papers with number 651.
Date of creation: Mar 2008
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assessment; agriculture residues; bio-ethanol; bio-gas; marginal lands; livestock waste; Uzbekistan; Central Asia;
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