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Liderança de Mercado na Indústria Automobilística Brasileira: O Caso da Marcopolo

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  • Luiz Ricardo Cavalcante
  • Bruno César Araújo
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    Abstract

    O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar os fatores que explicam a posição de liderança de mercado ocupada pela Marcopolo, que é a principal fabricante brasileira de carrocerias de ônibus. Do ponto de vista metodológico, este trabalho é um estudo de caso baseado em revisão bibliográfica e entrevistas. A hipótese subjacente é que alguns fatores idiossincráticos relativos ao mercado brasileiro levaram as multinacionais fabricantes de veículos de grande porte a renunciar à competição com os produtores brasileiros, no segmento de carrocerias de ônibus. Em relação ao conjunto do setor automobilístico, a fabricação de carrocerias de ônibus é um segmento relativamente intensivo em mão de obra – com menores níveis de faturamento – e menos intensivo em pesquisa e desenvolvimento (P&D), uma vez que as inovações tendem a ser incrementais. Estas características permitiram que as empresas brasileiras do setor conseguissem crescer em paralelo ao aumento do mercado local e ditassem os padrões de relacionamento entre fornecedores e compradores. Para tornar-se exportadora de veículos completamente desmontados (completely knocked down – CKD), a Marcopolo precisou desenvolver capacidades tecnológicas concernentes à produção enxuta, especialmente modularidade e plataformas de produtos ou famílias. Para desenvolver suas capacidades tecnológicas, esta empresa privilegiou as atividades internas de P&D e a integração vertical da cadeia de produção. Por sua vez, a cooperação da Marcopolo com universidades, centros de pesquisa e outras empresas do segmento de fabricação de carrocerias de ônibus não parece ser elemento central para o acúmulo de capacitações tecnológicas e a posição de liderança ocupada. Recentemente, a Marcopolo passou a enfatizar a internacionalização por meio da aquisição de plantas existentes, de joint ventures e do envolvimento de fornecedores locais, especialmente em países em desenvolvimento. Estes movimentos, no entanto, não se destinaram a ser fonte de novas tecnologias. Em suma, as estratégias e as decisões empregadas pela Marcopolo estiveram à frente da retórica das políticas públicas adotadas e das tendências do mercado no Brasil. Estas estratégias foram claramente mais arriscadas, mas, uma vez bem-sucedidas, ajudam a entender a posição de liderança da Marcopolo. The aim of this paper is to analyze the factors that explain the market leadership of a Brazilian bus bodywork manufacturer (Marcopolo). From a methodological point of view, the paper is a case study based on a bibliographic review and in-depth interviews.The underlying hypothesis is that some idiosyncratic factors regarding Brazilian market led the multinationals to give up contesting Brazilian incumbents in the bus bodywork segment. As compared to the automobile industry as whole, bus bodywork manufacturing is a relatively labor-intensive, smaller and less R&D-intensive industry, as innovation tends to be incremental. As a result, Brazilian companies managed to grow hand-in-hand with the local automotive market and dictated the customer-supplier relationship patterns. In order to become a relevant completely knocked down (CKD) vehicle exporter, Marcopolo had to develop technological capabilities related to stock management and lean production principles of modularity and product platforms or families. The firm relied basically on intramural research and development (R&D) and on vertical integration as a technology strategy to develop these capabilities. There seems not to be a relevant cooperative culture between Marcopolo and universities, research centers and other bus bodywork companies. However, there is cooperation between Marcopolo and companies outside the bus bodywork segment. Recently, Marcopolo found its own way to internationalization, especially towards developing countries, through acquisition of existing plants, joint-ventures and involvement of local suppliers. These movements, however, were not intended to be a source of new technologies. In short, Marcopolo’s strategies and decisions have been ahead of the public policy rhetoric and of the market trends in Brazil. These strategies were clearly riskier, but, once succeeded, help to understand Marcopolo’s leading position.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1906.

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    Length: 52 pages
    Date of creation: Dec 2013
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1906

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