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Minha Casa Minha Vida, Nosso Crescimento: Onde fica a Política Habitacional ?

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  • Cleandro Krause
  • Renato Balbim
  • Vicente Correia Lima Neto
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    Abstract

    Desde 2009, o Programa Minha Casa Minha Vida (MCMV) assumiu a maior parte da provisão habitacional de interesse social no Brasil, operando fora do marco do Fundo Nacional de Habitação de Interesse Social (FNHIS) e colocando em segundo plano, como orientador da política habitacional para as famílias de mais baixa renda, o Plano Nacional de Habitação (PlanHab). Este trabalho traz a hipótese de que o MCMV não seja orientado pelo enfrentamento do déficit habitacional, segundo princípios, diretrizes, critérios e formas de atendimento elencados pelo PlanHab, respondendo mais a estratégias de alavancagem do desenvolvimento econômico do país. Corroboram essa hipótese análises de dados da Caixa Econômica Federal (CAIXA) e do Ministério das Cidades (MCidades) sobre contratações e seleções de empreendimentos do MCMV para famílias com renda de até três salários mínimos (SMs), tanto com recursos do Fundo de Arrendamento Residencial (FAR) como por meio de Oferta Pública de Recursos (OPR) em municípios com população de até 50 mil habitantes; dados esses comparados às próprias metas do programa e ao déficit habitacional desagregado pela tipologia de municípios definida pelo PlanHab. Além disso,evidencia-se a desvinculação das formas de atendimento do MCMV em relação às linhas programáticas propostas no PlanHab e verifica-se uma maior aderência de contratações de empreendimentos para famílias com renda de três a dez SMs, com recursos do Fundo de Garantia do Tempo de Serviço (FGTS), à demanda habitacional calculada por município, o que contribui para reforçar a hipótese inicialmente apresentada. O trabalho propõe, ainda, formas simplificadas de monitoramento do MCMV e sugere aspectos a serem considerados em sua eventual revisão. Created in 2009 by the federal government, Minha Casa Minha Vida (MCMV) is the largest housing policy in Brazil. Since its creation, it has financed the majority of the country’s social housing provision. However, we argue that MCMV operations are detached from the national housing policy framework, explicit in the National Social Housing Fund (FNHIS) and the National Housing Plan (PlanHab). In this paper we show that MCMV is not being primarily guided by the housing deficit, a crucial concern in PlanHab. Rather, our analysis suggests that MCMV responds to strategies aimed at Brazil’s economic growth. Based on data from the Ministry of Cities and Caixa Econômica Federal, the main financial agent for public housing in the country,we show that the production of housing units for low-wage families is basically located in sites where land costs are lower and production of estates is easier for entrepreneurs.Additionally, comparing MCMV’s production aimed at low-wage families with that aimed at middle-wage families, we find that the program is more adherent to the latters’ housing demand, than to the formers’ housing deficit. Moreover, we observe that MCMV shows a rather limited range of housing solutions and types, as compared to a broader range by PlanHab. Finally, we propose some simple indicators that could be useful in monitoring the production of social housing, along with suggestions for the program’s revision.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1853.

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    Length: 58 pages
    Date of creation: Aug 2013
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1853

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