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Dimensões do Acesso a Medicamentos no Brasil: Prefil e Desigualdades dos Gastos das Famílias, Segundo as Pesquisas de Orçamentos Familiares 2002-2003 e 2008-2009

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  • Leila Posenato Garcia
  • Luís Carlos Garcia de Magalhães
  • Ana Cláudia Sant'Anna
  • Lúcia Rolim Santana de Freitas
  • Adriana Pacheco Aurea
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    Abstract

    O acesso a medicamentos no Brasil pode ser estudado por meio de diferentes recortes analíticos. Um desses recortes é o gasto das famílias com medicamentos, cujo peso em relação à renda das famílias brasileiras é amplamente conhecido. Este estudo tem como objetivo descrever os gastos das famílias brasileiras com medicamentos e analisar as desigualdades socioeconômicas expressas nesses gastos. O estudo inova em relação aos pregressos, uma vez que descreve os gastos segundo categorias de medicamentos e apresenta uma análise de desigualdades nos gastos incorporando não apenas o aspecto da renda mas, também, a percepção das condições de vida referidas pelas famílias. Foram utilizados os microdados das Pesquisas de Orçamentos Familiares (POFs) realizadas em 2002-2003 e 2008-2009, pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). O gasto com medicamentos foi o principal componente do gasto com saúde das famílias brasileiras. No período estudado, houve variação positiva de 10% no valor absoluto do gasto com medicamentos. Segundo a POF 2008-2009, o gasto médio foi R$ 59,02. Cerca de 77% das famílias tiveram registro de gasto com medicamentos durante o período de referência para coleta de dados, cujo gasto médio foi R$ 76,31. O gasto familiar per capita médio com medicamentos foi R$ 17,91. Entre as famílias pertencentes ao primeiro décimo de renda, esse gasto foi R$ 4,47, enquanto entre as famílias pertencentes ao último décimo foi R$ 58,44. As famílias com menor renda comprometiam, proporcionalmente, maior parcela da renda familiar na aquisição de medicamentos do que as famílias com maior renda. Em 2008-2009, as famílias no último décimo de renda gastaram com medicamentos, em termos absolutos, treze vezes o valor gasto pelas famílias pertencentes ao primeiro décimo, apesar das famílias com menor renda gastarem na aquisição desses bens essenciais, em termos absolutos, muito menos do que aquelas com maior renda. Ficou evidente que houve um aumento da proporção de famílias que tiveram gastos com determinadas categorias de medicamentos, principalmente analgésicos, antigripais, medicamentos para colesterol e problemas do coração. Por sua vez, houve redução da proporção de famílias que tiveram gastos com anti-infecciosos e anti-inflamatórios. A alta desigualdade na distribuição de renda, que ainda prevalece na sociedade brasileira, se manifesta da mesma forma na alta desigualdade do gasto das famílias com medicamentos. Access to medicines in Brazil can be studied using different analytical approaches. One of these approaches is the household spending on medicines, whose weight over the income of the Brazilian families is widely known. The study aims to describe the spending on medicines of the Brazilian families and to analyse socioeconomic inequalities in these expenditures. The study innovates, in relation to previous studies by describing the expenditures according to categories of medicines and on providing an analysis of the spending inequalities that incorporates, not only the aspect of income, but also the self-perception of living conditions of these families. The microdata used are from the Family Budget Surveys (POF) conducted in 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The spending on medicines, one of the main components of the health expenditures of Brazilian families, had a positive change of 10% in its absolute value, during the period studied. According to POF 2008-2009, the average expenditure was R$ 59.02. About 77% of the families recorded an average spending of R$ 76.31 on medicines during the reference period for data collection. The average of per capita expenditure on medicines was R$ 17.91. Families belonging to the bottom income decile had spent R$ 4.47, while those belonging to the top decile had spent R$ 58.44. Families with lower incomes undertook proportionately greater fraction of their income on purchasing medicines than those with higher incomes. In 2008-2009, the families in the top decile of income spent on medicines, in absolute terms, thirteen times the amount spent by those belonging to the bottom decile, despite the fact that families with lower income spend much less than those with higher incomes on acquiring these essential goods. The study showed an increase in the proportion of families that had expenditure of certain categories of medicines, especially analgesics, cold medication, and medicines for cholesterol and heart diseases. In turn, there was a reduction in the proportion of families that had expenditures on anti-infective and anti-inflammatory agents. The high inequality in income distribution still prevalent in the Brazilian society has been manifested, in the same way, in the high inequality of household spending on medicines.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1839.

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    Length: 56 pages
    Date of creation: Jun 2013
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1839

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