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Novos Aspectos da Regulação do Trabalho no Brasil. Qual o Papel do Estado?

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  • André Gambier Campos
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    Abstract

    Uma inserção civilizada dos trabalhadores nos âmbitos econômico, social e político da vida brasileira depende da existência de relações assalariadas com direitos trabalhistas e previdenciários assegurados. Não obstante, ao longo dos anos 1990 e em parte dos atuais, os trabalhadores tenderam a assumir outras posições na estrutura de ocupações – posições quase sempre distintas da de assalariados formalmente registrados. Em boa medida, a dinâmica econômica do período respondeu por esse movimento de desassalariamento, que resultou em um número crescente de empregos sem direitos trabalhistas/previdenciários e de ocupações por conta própria sem vínculos previdenciários. Entretanto, a atuação do Estado brasileiro também respondeu por esse movimento, ao introduzir novos mecanismos de regulação da contratação, utilização, remuneração e tributação do trabalho. A atuação estatal, indutora do movimento de desassalariamento do trabalho, não se mostrou isenta de ambivalências e contradições, revelando as tensões que permeiam a estrutura do Estado brasileiro. De um lado, os poderes Executivo e Legislativo promoveram mudanças na regulação laboral para favorecer a incorporação à estrutura ocupacional de inúmeras formas, exceto a por via do assalariamento com carteira registrada. De outro lado, o Poder Judiciário, o Ministério Público e as auditorias fiscais resistiram a tais mudanças (inclusive atribuindo-lhes novos sentidos, contrários aos originalmente previstos), de modo a ampliar (ou ao menos manter) a inserção assalariada formal dos trabalhadores brasileiros. Wage employment is essential to a fair participation of workers in economic, social and political fields. This economic relation is based on many (and relevant) labour and social rights. However, in the 1990’s and the beginning of the 2000’s, wage employment lost a bit of its importance in the Brazilian occupational structure. The main reason was the poor performance of the economy, which fostered occupation without labour and social rights. Nevertheless, there were also political aspects involved, since the legislation of that period enhanced the growth of rightless labour activities. The politics behind the emergence of such legislation were full of contradictions, showing that the Brazilian State initiatives were full of ambiguities. For example, on one side, executive and legislative representatives introduced new rules that stimulated occupation deprived of labour and social rights. On the other side, judges and prosecutors (as well as labour inspectors) resisted strongly to such new rules, aiming to guarantee wage employment with all related rights.

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    Paper provided by Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA in its series Discussion Papers with number 1407.

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    Length: 46 pages
    Date of creation: Jun 2009
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    Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:1407

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